IFRS 9 Eligible Hedged items
the insured items of business risk exposures
Although the popular definition of hedging is an investment taken out to limit the risk of another investment, insurance is an example of a real-world hedge.
Every entity is exposed to business risks from its daily operations. Many of those risks have an impact on the cash flows or the value of assets and liabilities, and therefore, ultimately affect profit or loss. In order to manage these risk exposures, companies often enter into derivative contracts (or, less commonly, other financial instruments) to hedge them. Hedging can, therefore, be seen as a risk management activity in order to change an entity’s risk profile.
The idea of hedge accounting is to reduce (insure) this mismatch by changing either the measurement or (in the case of certain firm commitments) recognition of the hedged exposure, or the accounting for the hedging instrument.
The definition of a Hedged item
A hedged item is an asset, liability, firm commitment, highly probable forecast transaction or net investment in a foreign operation that
- exposes the entity to risk of changes in fair value or future cash flows and
- is designated as being hedged
The hedge item can be:
- a single item, or
- a group of items (provided the specific requirements are met).
Only assets, liabilities, firm commitments and forecast transactions with an external party qualify for hedge accounting. As an exception, a hedge of the foreign currency risk of an intragroup monetary item qualifies for hedge accounting if that foreign currency risk affects consolidated profit or loss. In addition, the foreign currency risk of a highly probable forecast intragroup transaction would also qualify as a hedged item if that transaction affects consolidated profit or loss. These requirements are unchanged from IAS 39.