Credit derivatives – How 2 better understand it

Credit derivatives allow a lender or borrower to transfer the default risk of a loan to a third party. Though the terms differ from one credit derivative to another, the general procedure is for a lending party to enter into an agreement with a counterparty (usually another lender), who agrees, for a fee, to cover any losses incurred in the event that a the borrower defaults. If the borrower does not default, then the insuring counterparty pays nothing to the original lender and keeps the fee as a gain.

IFRS 9 deals with credit derivatives that are embedded in host debt instruments. A credit derivative is a financial instrument designed to transfer credit risk from the entity exposed to that risk to an entity willing to take on that risk. The derivative derives its economic value by reference to a specified debt obligation, often described as the ‘reference asset’.

Credit derivatives that are embedded in a host debt instrument and allow one party (the ‘beneficiary’) to transfer the credit risk of a particular reference asset, which it may not own, to another party (the ‘guarantor’) are not closely related to the host debt instrument. Such credit derivatives allow the guarantor to assume the credit risk associated with the reference asset without directly owning it [IFRS 9 B4.3.5(f)].

They are the negotiable bilateral contracts (reciprocal arrangement between two parties to perform an act in exchange of the other parties act) that help the users to manage their exposure to credit risks. The buyer pays a fee to the party taking on the risk.

Technical explanations of credit derivatives

Types of credit derivatives

  • Unfunded credit derivatives: It is a contract between two parties where each is responsible of making the payments under the contract. These are termed as unfunded as the seller makes no upfront payment to cover any future liabilities. The seller makes any payment only when the settlement is met. Ultimately the buyer takes the credit risk on whether the seller will be able to pay any cash / physical settlement amount. Credit Default Swap (CDS) is the most common and popular type of unfunded credit derivatives.

  • Funded Credit derivatives: In this type, the party that is assuming the credit risk makes an initial payment that is used to settle any credit events that may happen going forward. Thereby, the buyer is not exposed to the credit risk of the seller. Credit Linked Note (CLN) and Collateralised Debt Obligation (CDO) are the charmers of the funded credit derivative products. These kinds of transactions generally involve Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs) for issuing / raising a debt obligation which is done through the seller. The proceeds are collateralised by investing in highly rated securities and these note proceeds can be used for any cash or physical settlement.

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Credit derivative products under each type

Unfunded credit derivatives

Funded Credit derivatives

A. Credit default Swap (CDS)

G. Credit linked note (CLN)

B. Credit default swaption

C. Credit spread option

H. Constant Proportion Debt Obligation (CPDO)

D. Total return swap

E. CDS index products

I. Collateralised debt obligation (CDO)

F. CDS on Asset backed securities

Explanations for each derivative product

Unfunded credit derivative products

A. Credit default Swap (CDS)

The most popular form of unfunded credit derivative is Credit Default Swap (CDS).

In a credit default swap, the seller negotiates an upfront or continuous fee, in order to compensate the buyer when a specified event, such as default or failure to make a payment occurs.

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The benefit to the buyer and the seller in CDS is that the buyers can remove risky entities from their balance sheets without having to selling them while the sellers can gain higher returns from investments by entering markets which are otherwise difficult for them to get into.

CDS are mainly of four types:

  1. Credit default swaps on single entities: In this form, the swap is on a single entity
  2. Credit default swaps on a basket of entities: In this the swap is on a bunch of entities combined
  3. Credit default index swaps: this includes a portfolio of single entity swaps
  4. First-loss and tranche-loss credit default swaps: In this type, the buyer is compensated for any losses from the credit events unlike that in the first loss credit default swap which only compensates the loss from the first credit event

Finally, the value of a default swap depends on the probability of entity or the counterparty or the correlation between them.

Example of Credit default Swap

The most common example for a CDS is between a company, bank and Insurance firm:

Suppose Bank A buys a bond which issued by a XYZ Company. In order to hedge the default of XYZ Company, Bank A buys a credit default swap (CDS) from Insurance Company. The bank keeps paying fixed periodic payments to the insurance company, in exchange of the default protection.

B. Credit default swaption

Credit default swaption or credit default option is an option to buy protection (payer option) or sell protection (receiver option) as a credit default swap on a specific reference credit with a specific maturity. (Wikipedia).

Simply put it is an option on a CDS. It gives the holder a right and not obligation to buy / sell protection for an entity for specified future time period.

C. Credit spread option

A credit spread, or net credit spread, involves a purchase of one option and a sale of another option in the same class and expiration but different strike prices. Investors receive a net credit for entering the position, and want the spreads to narrow or expire for profit. (Wikipedia)

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D. Total return swap

It is defined as the total transfer of both the credit risk and market risk of the underlying asset. The assets commonly are bonds, loans and equities.

E. CDS index (CDSI) products

It is a credit derivative used to hedge credit risk or to take a position on a basket of credit entities. CDSI is a standardised credit security unlike a CDS which is an OTC derivative.

F. Asset backed CDS (ABCDS)

The reference asset in this case is an asset backed security rather than any corporate credit instrument.

Funded credit derivatives

G. Credit linked note (CLN)

It is structured as a security with an embedded CDS allowing the issuer to transfer a specific credit risk to credit investors. In this case the issuer is not obligated to repay the debt if a specified event occurs. The ultimate purpose of the CLN is to pass on the risk of specific default to the investors who are willing to bear the risk in return for higher yield.

Example of Credit-linked note

An investment bank issues a credit-linked note to another party (the investor) in return for a consideration equal to the par value of the note. The coupon on the note is linked to the credit risk of a portfolio of third-party bonds (the reference assets). In economic terms, the credit-linked note compromises a fixed income instrument with an embedded credit derivative.

The embedded credit derivative must be accounted for separately as it is linked to credit risks of debt instruments issued by third parties and not to the credit risks of the host debt instrument issued by the investment bank. The notion of an embedded derivative in a hybrid instrument refers to provisions incorporated into a single contract and not to provisions in separate contracts between different counter-parties.

H. Constant Proportion Debt Obligation (CPDO)

CPDO is a complex financial instrument, invented in 2006 by ABN Amro and designed to pay the same high interest rate as a risky junk bond while offering the highest possible credit rating. It is defined as a type of synthetic collateralized debt instrument that is backed by a debt security index. These are credit derivatives for the investors who are willing to take exposure to credit risk.

I. Collateralised debt obligation (CDO)

It is a type of structured asset backed security (ABS). The CDO is divided into tranches through which the flow of payments is controlled. The payments and interest rates vary with the tranches with the most senior one paying the lowest rates and the lowest tranche paying the highest rates to compensate for the default risk. Synthetic CDOS are credit derivatives that are synthesized through basic CDs like CDSs and CLNs. These are divided into credit tranches based on the level of credit risk.

Credit derivatives

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