Credit risk on the hedging instrument
credit risk on the hedged item
and the impact of changes in these credit risks should not be of a magnitude such that it dominates the value changes, even if there is an economic relationship between the hedged item and hedging instrument. Credit risk can arise on both the hedging instrument and the hedged item in the form of counterparty’s credit risk or the entity’s own credit risk. Credit risk on the hedging instrument
Judgement has to be used in determining when the impact of credit risk is ‘dominating’ the value changes. But clearly, to ‘dominate’ would mean that there would have to be a very significant effect on the fair value of the hedged item or the hedging instrument. The standard provides guidance that small effects should be ignored even when, in a particular period, they affect the fair values more than changes in the hedged risk. In other words, it is not only a relative but also an absolute assessment. Credit risk on the hedged item
The assessment of credit risk for hedge effectiveness purposes, which in many cases may be carried out on a qualitative basis, should not be confused with the requirement to actually measure and recognise the impact of credit risk on the hedging instrument and the hedged item.
Credit risk on the hedging instrument
IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement is clear that the effect of credit risk, both the counterparty’s credit risk and the entity’s own credit risk, has to be reflected in the measurement of fair value. The effect of credit risk on the measurement of the hedging instrument would obviously result in some hedge ineffectiveness. The expected effect of that ineffectiveness should not be of a magnitude that it neutralises the offsetting impact of a significant change in the values of the hedging instrument and the hedged item (see ‘Economic relationship‘).
The assessment of the effect of credit risk is a qualitative assessment in most cases. For example, entities typically have counterparty risk limits defined as part of their risk management policy. The credit standing of the counterparties is monitored on a regular basis.
The risk management policy may include measures to be taken once a significant deterioration in the credit risk is identified. Such measures could include settling the derivative and possibly novating it to another party (in which case, the hedging relationship would have to be discontinued), or negotiating collateral or other credit enhancements (which would significantly improve the hedging relationship).
However, a quantitative assessment of the impact of credit risk on the value changes of the hedging relationship might be required in some instances, e.g., to find out what factors contribute to a low offset between the changes in the value of the hedging instrument and the hedged item and the magnitude of their influence.
Nowadays, most over-the-counter derivative contracts between financial institutions are cash collateralised. Furthermore, current initiatives in several jurisdictions, such as, the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR) in the European Union or the Dodd-Frank Act in the United States, will result in more derivative contracts being collateralised by cash. Cash collateralization significantly reduces the credit risk for both parties involved, meaning that credit risk is unlikely to dominate the change in fair value of such hedging instruments. Credit risk on the hedging instrument
Credit risk on the hedged item
The analysis of credit risk on the hedged item is somewhat different, as credit risk does not apply to all types of hedged items. For example, inventory and forecast transactions would not have credit risk. Loan assets typically have counterparty credit risk, while financial liabilities bear the issuing entity’s own credit risk. Credit risk on the hedging instrument
Credit risk cannot dominate the value change in a hedge of a forecast transaction as the transaction is, by definition, only anticipated but not committed. Credit risk is defined as ‘risk that one party to a financial instrument will cause a financial loss for the other party by failing to discharge an obligation’. For the same reason, inventory also does not involve credit risk.
Consequently, credit risk can only apply if the entity enters into a contract (e.g., if the hedged item is a firm commitment or a financial instrument). credit risk on the hedged item
This should be contrasted with the assessment of whether a forecast transaction is highly probable. Even though such a transaction does not involve credit risk, depending on the possible counterparties for the anticipated transaction, the credit risk that affects them can indirectly affect the assessment of whether the forecast transaction is highly probable.
For example, assume an entity sells a product to only one particular customer abroad for which the sales are denominated in a foreign currency and the entity does not have alternative customers to sell the product to in that currency (or other sales in that currency). In that case, the credit risk of that particular customer would indirectly affect the likelihood of the entity’s forecast sales in that currency occurring. Credit risk on the hedging instrument
The Effect of Credit Risk on an Economic Relationship
The hedge accounting model is based on a general notion of offsetting gains and losses of hedging instruments and hedged items. Because these instruments will require counterparties to make good on any obligations that arise, hedge effectiveness is determined not only by the economic relationship between those two items, but also by the effect of credit risk on the value of both the hedged item and hedging instrument. This can result in an erratic level of offset, regardless of the strength of the economic relationship.
Note! Entities should consider the effect of changes in a counterparty’s credit risk as well as its own credit risk when assessing hedge effectiveness. However, not all hedged items (e.g. inventory, forecast transaction, etc.) are exposed to credit risk. Also, certain hedged items will only be exposed to either counterparty or the entity’s own credit risk, but not both (e.g. financial liabilities bear the issuing entity’s own credit risk). credit risk on the hedged item
For a hedge to be effective, the effect of credit risk must not dominate value changes resulting from the economic relationship.
|Example of the Effect of Credit Risk
A regional Credit Union that wishes to hedge a portfolio of consumer loans may be unable to utilize hedge accounting if deteriorating economic conditions in its region causes a sizable increase in credit risk which is not also reflected in the hedging instrument.
When is credit risk dominating the value changes in the underlyings of the hedged item and hedging instrument? credit risk on the hedged item
IFRS 9 considers significant changes in the underlyings when determining dominance of credit risk. A level of magnitude that gives rise to dominance is one that would result in the loss or gain from credit risk having a significant effect on the fair value of the hedging instrument or the hedged item when the changes in the underlyings were also significant.
This means that if during a particular period there are little changes in the underlyings, the fact that even small credit risk-related changes in the value of the hedging instrument or hedged item might affect the hedging relationship more than the underlyings does not result in violation of the hedge effectiveness requirements. credit risk on the hedged item
|Example of the Determination of the Dominance of Credit Risk
Lender A applies fair value hedge accounting to hedge its exposure to changes in fair value of its $100,000 fixed rate loan using a pay-fixed receive-variable interest rate swap. A small change in interest rates resulted in a hedging adjustment to the loan of $1,000 and a change in the loan’s credit quality resulted in an adjustment to the loan of $1,000 (1% of the loan total).
Assessment: The effect of credit risk is significant in relation to the changes in the underlying (i.e., the effect of the change in credit risk impacted the loan equally as the change in the market interest rate). However, because the adjustments involved are so minimal in relation to the total size of the loan, the effect of credit risk does not dominate changes arising from the economic relationship. If the change in credit quality resulted in an adjustment to the loan of $15,000 (15% of the loan total), this would likely indicate that credit risk dominates the effect of the economic relationship.
When considering the impact of credit risk, an entity considers the effects of collateral, seniority of claims and any guarantees of liabilities. credit risk on the hedged item
See Also: What is credit risk?
Credit risk on the hedging instrument
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