In a Business Combinations, these are intangible assets and are therefore recognised separately from goodwill, provided that their fair values can be measured reliably. These marketing-related intangible assets meet the definition of an intangible asset because they arise from contractual or other legal rights.
If an entity establishes relationships with its customers through contracts, those customer relationships arise from contractual rights. Therefore, customer contracts and the related customer relationships acquired in a business combination meet the contractual-legal criterion for identification as intangible assets. This will be the case even if confidentiality or other contractual terms prohibit the sale or transfer of a contract separately from the acquired entity or business.
Customer relationships also meet the contractual-legal criterion for identification as intangible assets when an entity has a practice of establishing contracts with its customers, regardless of whether a contract exists at the date of acquisition.
As noted in the intangible assets-class Order or production backlog, an order or a production backlog arises from contracts such as purchase or sales orders, and is therefore also considered a contractual right. Consequently, if an entity has customer relationships with its customers through these types of contracts, the customer relationships also arise from contractual rights, and therefore meet the contractual-legal criterion for identification as intangible assets.