IFRS 12 Definition: An entity, including an unincorporated entity such as a partnership, over which the investor has significant influence, and that is neither a controlled entity nor an interest in a joint venture.
Associates are all entities over which the group has significant influence but not control or joint control, generally accompanying a shareholding of between 20% and 50% of the voting rights. Investments in associates are accounted for using the equity method of accounting, after initially being recognised at cost. The group’s investment in associates includes goodwill identified on acquisition.
The group’s share of its associates’ post-acquisition profits or losses is recognised in profit or loss, and its share of post-acquisition other comprehensive income is recognised in other comprehensive income. The cumulative post-acquisition movements are adjusted against the carrying amount of the investment. Dividends receivable from associates are recognised as a reduction in the carrying amount of the investment.
Where the group’s share of losses in an associate equals or exceeds its interest in the associate, including any other unsecured long-term receivables, the group does not recognise further losses, unless it has incurred obligations or made payments on behalf of the associate.
Unrealised gains on transactions between the group and its associates are eliminated to the extent of the group’s interest in the associates. Unrealised losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred.
Accounting policies of associates are adjusted, where necessary, to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the group.
Example notes disclosure on Associates (Volkswagen Consolidated Financial Statements 2018)
Significant companies where Volkswagen AG is able, directly or indirectly, to significantly influence financial and operating policy decisions (associates), or that are directly or indirectly jointly controlled (joint ventures), are accounted for using the equity method. Joint ventures also include companies in which the Volkswagen Group holds the majority of voting rights, but whose articles of association or partnership agreements stipulate that important decisions may only be resolved unanimously. Insignificant associates and joint ventures are carried at cost net of any impairment losses and reversals of impairment losses required to be recognized.
INVESTMENTS IN ASSOCIATES
From a Group perspective, the associates Sinotruk (Hong Kong) Ltd., Hongkong, China (Sinotruk), Bertrandt AG, Ehningen (Bertrandt), There Holding B.V., Rijswijk, the Netherlands (There Holding), and Navistar International Corporation, Lisle, USA (Navistar), were material at the reporting date.
The last part is from page 215, on which an extensive disclosure on the material associates follows.
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