Blockchain – Best 2 accounting for IFRS

Blockchain accounting for IFRS

Holdings of cryptocurrencies allow individuals and businesses to transact directly with each other without an intermediary such as a bank or other financial institution. These cryptocurrency transactions rely on a key technology called blockchain technology.

Digital assets or so-called cryptoassets are becoming increasingly common but what are they and how might you record them in your financial statements?

Holding cryptocurrencies – e.g. Bitcoin, Ether etc

What are the characteristics?

  • Cryptocurrencies – e.g. Bitcoin and Ether – typically exhibit some similarities to traditional currencies in that they can be traded for goods or services. They can also be held as a longer-term investment or for trading or speculation. But IFRIC and other commentators do not consider current cryptocurrencies to be cash or currency because:

    • they are a poor store of value, because their value is based on demand and supply and is highly volatile;

    • they are not sufficiently widely accepted as a medium of exchange; and

    • they are not issued by a central bank.

  • With cryptocurrencies also failing to meet the definition of a financial asset, the question is, what type of asset are they?

How might they impact your financial statements?

  • Because of their high volatility in value, many believe that cryptocurrencies are akin to derivatives and should be measured at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL). However, IFRIC’s tentative conclusions on accounting for cryptocurrencies do not support this approach.

  • IFRIC proposes that cryptocurrencies are generally intangible assets under IAS 38 Intangible Assets – i.e. non-monetary items with no physical substance that convey economic benefits to the holder.

  • Measurement would be at cost – or potentially at fair value with movements through other comprehensive income (OCI) if, and only if, there is an active market.

  • If the cryptocurrency is held for sale in the normal course of business – e.g. if you are a broker-trader (see below) – then IAS 38 does not apply and, instead, IFRIC proposes that the cryptocurrency would be accounted for as inventory under IAS 2 Inventory.

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Capitalisation of expenditure – 1 Complete answer

Capitalisation of expenditure

Capitalisation of expenditure is only possible when one of the following situations occur:

  • Capital expenditure (including equipment repairs and maintenance)
  • Recording lease contracts – Right-of-Use Assets
  • Capitalisation of borrowing costs
  • Capitalisation of cloud computing costs
  • Capitalisation of intangible assets
  • Capitalisation of internally capitalized intangible assets
  • Research & development costs
  • Prepaid expenses

Capital expenditure (including equipment repairs and maintenance)

The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment under IAS 16 Property, plant and equipment shall be recognised as an asset if, and only if:

  • it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the entity; and
  • the cost of the item can be measured reliably. (IAS 16.7)

Investment property

Certain properties which are used on rental are classified as an investment property in which case IAS 40 Investment property will apply. Only tangible items which have a useful life of more than one period are classified as property, plant and equipment as per IAS 16. But refer to the words “more than one period” as more than one accounting period of 12 months.

Also, an entity shall determine a threshold limit commensurate to its size for recognizing a tangible item as property, plant and equipment. For example, a tangible item of insignificant amount although satisfying the definition of property, plant and equipment may be expensed.

Initial recognition of indirect costs

Items of property, plant and equipment may be acquired for safety or environmental reasons. The acquisition of such property plant and equipment, although not directly increasing the future economic benefits of any particular existing item of property, plant and equipment, may be necessary for an entity to obtain the future economic benefits from its other assets.

Such items of property plant and equipment qualify for recognition as assets because they enable an entity to derive future economic benefits from related assets in excess of what could be derived had those items not been acquired.

Subsequent recognition of indirect costs

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Advertising and promotional costs

Advertising and promotional costs

The purpose of this narrative is to provide guidance when accounting for expenditure on advertising and promotional activities, including:

  • promotional catalogues and brochures;
  • samples; and
  • media advertising.

Promotional catalogues and brochures

Catalogues that are distributed free of charge to prospective customers and describe the entity’s products and services are not inventory or property, plant and equipment. Instead catalogues are considered to be a form of advertising and promotional material because their primary objective is to advertise. Therefore, the cost of catalogues is recognised as an expense when the entity received or otherwise has the right to access, the catalogues. A prepayment (asset) can be recognised in the statement of financial position only for payments made in advance of the receipt of the catalogues.

Advertising and promotional costs

Samples

For advertising and promotional purposes, some entities may manufacture samples (or specimen) that they intend to hand out free of charge – e.g. beauty products. The costs of manufacturing such samples are expensed as they are incurred; they are not recognised as inventory. [IAS 38.69–70]

Other entities may buy such specimen that they intend to hand out free of charge. The costs of purchasing those samples are expensed when the entity receives, or otherwise has the right to access, the samples; they are not recognised as inventory. A prepayment (asset) for such specimen can be recognised in the statement of financial position only for payments made in advance of the receipt of the specimen. However, if a producer sells products to a retailer and the retailer gives samples to customers free of charge, then the specimen would be treated as inventory of the producer. [IAS 38.69–70]

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1 Ultimate Guide – IFRS vs US GAAP Intangible assets goodwill

IFRS vs US GAAP Intangible assets goodwill

– The comparison starts with an overview of the differences and similarities between IFRS and US GAAP, and followed by more detailed differences and similarities  on a reporting line level.

Standards Reference

US GAAP1 IFRS2

Topic 35o Intangibles-Goodwill and Other

Subtopic 610-20 Other income – Gains and losses from the Derecognition of Nonfinancial Assets

Subtopic 720-15 Other expenses – Start-up costs

Subtopic 720-35 Other expenses = Advertising costs

Topic 730 Research and development arrangements

Subtopic 985-20 Software – Costs of software to be sold, leased or marketed

 IAS 38 Intangible assets

SIC-32 Intangible assets – Web site costs

IFRS vs US GAAP Intangible assets goodwill

Note

The following discussion captures a number of the more significant GAAP differences ans similarities under both the above mentioned standards. It is important to note that the discussion is not inclusive of all GAAP differences in this area.

In overview the similarities and differences are as follows:

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Non-monetary transactions IFRS 15 Complete and Exemplary Read

Non-monetary transactions IFRS 15

Barter transactions are the exchange of goods or services, in exchange for other goods or services

IFRS References: IFRS 15, IAS 16, IAS 38, IAS 40 Non-monetary transactions IFRS 15

If an entity enters into a non-monetary exchange with a customer as part of its ordinary activities, then generally it applies the guidance on non-cash consideration in the IFRS 15 Revenue standard. Non-monetary transactions IFRS 15

Non-monetary exchanges with non-customers do not give rise to revenue. If a non-monetary exchange of assets with a non-customer has commercial substance, then the transaction gives rise to a gain or loss. The cost of the asset acquired is generally the fair value of the asset surrendered, adjusted for any cash transferred. Non-monetary transactions IFRS 15

Simple bartering involves no cost as this involves exchanging goods and/or services of the same value.

A barter exchange operates as a broker and bank in which each participating member has an account that is debited when purchasesNon-monetary transactions IFRS 15 are made, and credited when sales are made. Compared to one-to-one bartering, concerns over unequal exchanges are reduced in a barter exchange.

The exchange plays an important role because it provides the record-keeping, brokering expertise and monthly statements to each member. Commercial exchanges make money by charging a commission on each transaction on either the buy or sell side, or a combination of both. Non-monetary transactions IFRS 15

In general, one requirement remains in tact in non-monetary transactions, revenue cannot be recognised if the amount of revenue is not reliably measurable. Non-monetary transactions IFRS 15

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Impairment of intangible assets

Possible impairment of intangible assets has to be assessed on a periodical basis. Intangible assets are tested for impairment when there is indication that they might be impaired. Indicators of impairment include legal restrictions, business restructuring, development of new technology, economic changes, etc. Impairment of intangible assets

Impairment test for intangible assets is the same as that for a tangible fixed asset:

  1. comparing the carrying amount of the asset, and Impairment of intangible assets
  2. the higher of fair value (less cost to sell) and value in use. Impairment of intangible assets

If b) is lower than a) that difference is recognized as impairment. Impairment of intangible assets

Impairment test for goodwill is a little more complex. The goodwill is first … Read more

Complete detection of all IFRS 3 intangibles

Complete detection of all IFRS 3 intangibles explains it all, because detecting intangible assets can be a complex and challenging matter. Strategies to detect identifiable intangible assets vary depending on the facts and circumstances of the business combination and usually require a full review of the transaction. It is important to understand the business of the acquiree, what intangible resources it depends on and how these may translate into identifiable intangible assets. It should be possible to explain the acquired business in terms of the resources it uses to generate profits and how these are reflected in the acquiree’s assets and liabilities. In other words ask the question: what has been paid for?

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4 proper uses of Residual value

The residual value of an asset is the estimated amount that an entity would obtain from asset disposal, after deducting the estimated costs of disposal

Intangible assets Example

Intangible assets, other than goodwill, include expenditure on the exploration for and evaluation of oil and natural gas resources, computer software, patents, licences and trademarks and are stated at the amount initially recognized, less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses.