IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments – The objective of IFRS 9 is to establish principles for the financial reporting of financial assets and financial liabilities that will present relevant and useful information to users of financial statements for their assessment of the amounts, timing and uncertainty of an entity’s future cash flows. The IFRS 9 Snapshot Hedge accounting is provided here.

1 What is part of IFRS 9 Financial instruments

IFRS 9 is applied to financial instruments except:

  1. those interests in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures that are accounted for in accordance with IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements, IAS 27 Separate Financial Statements or IAS 28 Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures. However, entities shall apply IFRS 9 to derivatives on an interest in a subsidiary, associate or joint venture unless the derivative meets the definition of an equity instrument of the entity in IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation.

  2. rights and obligations under leases to which IFRS 16 Leases applies. However:

    1. finance lease receivables (i.e. net investments in finance leases) and operating lease receivables recognised by a lessor are subject to the derecognition and impairment requirements of IFRS 9;

    2. lease liabilities recognised by a lessee are subject to the derecognition requirements of IFRS 9 and derivatives that are embedded in leases are subject to the embedded derivatives requirements of IFRS 9.

  3. employers’ rights and obligations under employee benefit plans, to which IAS 19 Employee Benefits applies.

  4. financial instruments issued by the entity that meet the definition of an equity instrument in IAS 32 (including options and warrants) or that are required to be classified as an equity instrument. However, the holder of such equity instruments shall apply IFRS 9 to those instruments, unless they meet the exception in (a).

  5. rights and obligations arising under:

    1. an insurance contract as defined in IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts, other than an issuer’s rights and obligations arising under an insurance contract that meets the definition of a financial guarantee contract, or

    2. a contract that is within the scope of IFRS 4 because it contains a discretionary participation feature. However, IFRS 9 applies to a derivative that is embedded in a contract within the scope of IFRS 4 if the derivative is not itself a contract within the scope of IFRS 4. Moreover, if an issuer of financial guarantee contracts has previously asserted explicitly that it regards such contracts as insurance contracts and has used accounting that is applicable to insurance contracts, the issuer may elect to apply either IFRS 9 or IFRS 4 to such financial guarantee contracts. The issuer may make that election contract by contract, but the election for each contract is irrevocable.

  6. any forward contract between an acquirer and a selling shareholder to buy or sell an acquiree that will result in a business combination within the scope of IFRS 3 Business Combinations at a future acquisition date. The term of the forward contract should not exceed a reasonable period normally necessary to obtain any required approvals and to complete the transaction.

  7. loan commitments other than those loan commitments described in IFRS 9. However, an issuer of loan commitments shall apply the impairment requirements of IFRS 9 to loan commitments that are not otherwise within the scope of IFRS 9. Also, all loan commitments are subject to the derecognition requirements of IFRS 9. The following loan commitments are within the scope of IFRS 9:

    1. loan commitments that the entity designates as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. An entity that has a past practice of selling the assets resulting from its loan commitments shortly after origination shall apply IFRS 9 to all its loan commitments in the same class;

    2. loan commitments that can be settled net in cash or by delivering or issuing another financial instrument. These loan commitments are derivatives. A loan commitment is not regarded as settled net merely because the loan is paid out in instalments (for example, a mortgage construction loan that is paid out in instalments in line with the progress of construction); and

    3. commitments to provide a loan at a below-market interest rate.

  8. financial instruments, contracts and obligations under share-based payment transactions to which IFRS 2 Share-based Payment applies, except for those contracts to buy or sell a non-financial item that can be settled net in cash or another financial instrument, or by exchanging financial instruments, as if the contracts were financial instruments:

    1. and are not entered into and continue to be held for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of a non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or usage requirements;

    2. may be irrevocably designated as measured at fair value through profit or loss. This designation is available only at inception of the contract and only if it eliminates or significantly reduces a recognition inconsistency (sometimes referred to as an ‘accounting mismatch’) that would otherwise arise from not recognising that contract. IFRS 9 shall be applied to those contracts that an entity designates as measured at fair value through profit or loss.

  9. rights to payments to reimburse the entity for expenditure that it is required to make to settle a liability that it recognises as a provision in accordance with IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, or for which, in an earlier period, it recognised a provision in accordance with IAS 37.

  10. rights and obligations within the scope of IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers that are financial instruments, except for those that IFRS 15 specifies are accounted for in accordance with IFRS 9.

2 Financial assets and liabilities

Financial asset is any asset that is one of the following:

Financial liability is any liability which meets either of the following criteria:

  • Cash

  • An equity instrument of another entity

  • A contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset from another entity; or to exchange financial instruments with another entity under conditions that are potentially favourable.

  • A contract that will be settled in the reporting entity’s own equity instruments and is:

    • A non-derivative for which the entity is, or may be obligated, to receive a variable number of its own equity instruments; or

    • A derivative that will, or may, be settled other than by the exchange of a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset for a fixed number of the entity’s own equity instruments (which excludes puttable financial instruments classified as equity and instruments that are themselves contracts for the future receipt or delivery of the entity’s equity instruments)

  • A contractual obligation:

    • to deliver cash or another financial asset to another entity; or

    • to exchange financial instruments with another entity under conditions which are potentially unfavourable to the entity.

  • A contract that will, or may, be settled in the entity’s own equity instruments and is:

    • a non-derivative for which the entity is, or may, be obligated to deliver a variable number of its own equity instruments; or

    • a derivative that will, or may, be settled other than by the exchange of a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset for a fixed number of the entity’s own equity instruments (which excludes puttable financial instruments classified as equity and instruments that are themselves contracts for the future receipt or delivery of the entity’s equity instruments).

Something else -   IFRS 10 Special control approach

3 Recognition and derecognition

3.1 Initial recognition

An entity shall recognise a financial asset or a financial liability in its statement of financial position when, and only when, the entity becomes party to the contractual provisions of the instrument

3.2 Derecognition of financial assets

Before evaluating whether, and to what extent, derecognition is appropriate, an entity determines whether those requirements should be applied to a part of a financial asset (or a part of a group of similar financial assets) or a financial asset (or a group of similar financial assets) in its entirety, as follows:

  1. Derecognition requirements are applied to a part of a financial asset (or a part of a group of similar financial assets) if, and only if, the part being considered for derecognition meets one of the following three conditions.
    1. The part comprises only specifically identified cash flows from a financial asset (or a group of similar financial assets).
    2. The part comprises only a fully proportionate (pro rata) share of the cash flows from a financial asset (or a group of similar financial assets).
    3. The part comprises only a fully proportionate (pro rata) share of specifically identified cash flows from a financial asset (or a group of similar financial assets).
  2. In all other cases, derecognition requirements are applied to the financial asset in its entirety (or to the group of similar financial assets in their entirety).

In the derecognition requirements, the term ‘financial asset’ refers to either a part of a financial asset (or a part of a group of similar financial assets) as identified in (a) above or, otherwise, a financial asset (or a group of similar financial assets) in its entirety.IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

An entity shall derecognise a financial asset when, and only when:

  1. the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or
  2. it transfers the financial asset and the transfer qualifies for derecognition.

3.2.1 Transfer of financial assets

An entity transfers a financial asset if, and only if, it either:

  1. transfers the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial asset, or
  2. retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial asset, but assumes a contractual obligation to pay the cash flows to one or more recipients in an arrangement that meets all of the following conditions:
    1. The entity has no obligation to pay amounts to the eventual recipients unless it collects equivalent amounts from the original asset. Short-term advances by the entity with the right of full recovery of the amount lent plus accrued interest at market rates do not violate this condition.
    2. The entity is prohibited by the terms of the transfer contract from selling or pledging the original asset other than as security to the eventual recipients for the obligation to pay them cash flows.
    3. The entity has an obligation to remit any cash flows it collects on behalf of the eventual recipients without material delay. In addition, the entity is not entitled to reinvest such cash flows, except for investments in cash or cash equivalents (as defined in IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows) during the short settlement period from the collection date to the date of required remittance to the eventual recipients, and interest earned on such investments is passed to the eventual recipients.

When an entity transfers a financial asset, it shall evaluate the extent to which it retains the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset. In this case:

  1. if the entity transfers substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the entity shall derecognise the financial asset and recognise separately as assets or liabilities any rights and obligations created or retained in the transfer.
  2. if the entity retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the entity shall continue to recognise the financial asset.
    1. if the entity neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the entity shall determine whether it has retained control of the financial asset. In this case:
    2. if the entity has not retained control, it shall derecognise the financial asset and recognise separately as assets or liabilities any rights and obligations created or retained in the transfer.
    3. if the entity has retained control, it shall continue to recognise the financial asset to the extent of its continuing involvement in the financial asset.

If an entity transfers a financial asset in a transfer that qualifies for derecognition in its entirety and retains the right to service the financial asset for a fee, it shall recognise either a servicing asset or a servicing liability for that servicing contract:

  1. If the fee to be received is not expected to compensate the entity adequately for performing the servicing, a servicing liability for the servicing obligation shall be recognised at its fair value or

  2. If the fee to be received is expected to be more than adequate compensation for the servicing, a servicing asset shall be recognised for the servicing right at an amount determined on the basis of an allocation of the carrying amount of the larger financial asset as follows:

    1. If the transferred asset is part of a larger financial asset (when an entity transfers interest cash flows that are part of a debt instrument) and the part transferred qualifies for derecognition in its entirety, the previous carrying amount of the larger financial asset shall be allocated between the part that continues to be recognised and the part that is derecognised, on the basis of the relative fair values of those parts on the date of the transfer. For this purpose, a retained servicing asset shall be treated as a part that continues to be recognised.

    2. The difference between:

      1. the carrying amount (measured at the date of derecognition) allocated to the part derecognised; and

      2. the consideration received for the part derecognised (including any new asset obtained less any new liability assumed)

xxxxxxx shall be recognised in profit or loss.

If, as a result of a transfer, a financial asset is derecognised in its entirety but the transfer results in the entity obtaining a new financial asset or assuming a new financial liability, or a servicing liability, the entity shall recognise the new financial asset, financial liability or servicing liability at fair value.

On derecognition of a financial asset in its entirety, the difference between:

  1. the carrying amount (measured at the date of derecognition) and
  2. the consideration received (including any new asset obtained less any new liability assumed) shall be recognised in profit or loss.

If a transfer does not result in derecognition because the entity has retained substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the transferred asset, the entity shall continue to recognise the transferred asset in its entirety and shall recognise a financial liability for the consideration received. In subsequent periods, the entity shall recognise any income on the transferred asset and any expense incurred on the financial liability.

3.2.2 Continuing involvement in financial assets

If an entity neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred asset, and retains control of the transferred asset, the entity continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of its continuing involvement. The extent of the entity’s continuing involvement in the transferred asset is the extent to which it is exposed to changes in the value of the transferred asset.

  1. When the entity’s continuing involvement takes the form of guaranteeing the transferred asset, the extent of the entity’s continuing involvement is the lower of

    1. the amount of the asset; and IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

    2. the maximum amount of the consideration received that the entity could be required to repay (‘the guarantee amount’).

  2. When the entity’s continuing involvement takes the form of a written or purchased option (or both) on the transferred asset, the extent of the entity’s continuing involvement is the amount of the transferred asset that the entity may repurchase. However, in the case of a written put option on an asset that is measured at fair value, the extent of the entity’s continuing involvement is limited to the lower of the fair value of the transferred asset and the option exercise price. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

  3. When the entity’s continuing involvement takes the form of a cash-settled option or similar provision on the transferred asset, the extent of the entity’s continuing involvement is measured in the same way as that which results from non-cash settled options as set out in (b) above. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

When an entity continues to recognise an asset to the extent of its continuing involvement, the entity also recognises an associated liability. Despite the other measurement requirements in IFRS 9, the transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the entity has retained. The associated liability is measured in such a way that the net carrying amount of the transferred asset and the associated liability is: IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

  1. the amortised cost of the rights and obligations retained by the entity, if the transferred asset is measured at amortised cost, or
  2. equal to the fair value of the rights and obligations retained by the entity when measured on a stand-alone basis, if the transferred asset is measured at fair value.

The entity shall continue to recognise any income arising on the transferred asset to the extent of its continuing involvement and shall recognise any expense incurred on the associated liability.

For the purpose of subsequent measurement, recognised changes in the fair value of the transferred asset and the associated liability are accounted for consistently with each other and shall not be offset. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

If an entity’s continuing involvement is in only a part of a financial asset (e.g. when an entity retains an option to repurchase part of a transferred asset, or retains a residual interest that does not result in the retention of substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and the entity retains control), the entity allocates the previous carrying amount of the financial asset between the part it continues to recognise under continuing involvement, and the part it no longer recognises on the basis of the relative fair values of those parts on the date of the transfer.

The difference between: IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

  1. the carrying amount (measured at the date of derecognition) allocated to the part that is no longer recognised and
  2. the consideration received for the part no longer recognised IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

shall be recognised in profit or loss. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

3.2.3 All transfers

If a transferred asset continues to be recognised, the asset and the associated liability shall not be offset. Similarly, the entity shall not offset any income arising from the transferred asset with any expense incurred on the associated liability. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

If a transferor provides non-cash collateral (such as debt or equity instruments) to the transferee, the accounting for the collateral by the transferor and the transferee depends on whether the transferee has the right to sell or repledge the collateral and on whether the transferor has defaulted. The transferor and transferee shall account for the collateral as follows:

  1. If the transferee has the right by contract or custom to sell or repledge the collateral, then the transferor shall reclassify that asset in its statement of financial position separately from other assets. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments
  2. If the transferee sells collateral pledged to it, it shall recognise the proceeds from the sale and a liability measured at fair value for its obligation to return the collateral.
  3. If the transferor defaults under the terms of the contract and is no longer entitled to redeem the collateral, it shall derecognise the collateral, and the transferee shall recognise the collateral as its asset initially measured at fair value or, if it has already sold the collateral, derecognise its obligation to return the collateral.
  4. Except as provided in (c), the transferor shall continue to carry the collateral as its asset, and the transferee shall not recognise the collateral as an asset.

3.3 Derecognition of financial liabilities

An entity shall remove a financial liability (or a part of a financial liability) from its statement of financial position when, and only when, it is extinguished—i.e. when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged or cancelled or expires. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

An exchange between an existing borrower and lender of debt instruments with substantially different terms shall be accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. Similarly, a substantial modification of the terms of an existing financial liability or a part of it (whether or not attributable to the financial difficulty of the debtor) shall be accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability.

Something else -   Factoring of trade debtors

The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability (or part of a financial liability) extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, shall be recognised in profit or loss. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

4 Classification

4.1 Classification of financial assets

A financial asset shall be measured at fair value through profit or loss unless it is measured at amortised cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income. However, an entity may make an irrevocable election at initial recognition for particular investments in equity instruments that would otherwise be measured at fair value through profit or loss to present subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

An entity shall classify financial assets as subsequently measured at amortised cost, fair value through other comprehensive income or fair value through profit or loss on the basis of both:

  1. the entity’s business model for managing the financial assets and IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments
  2. the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

A financial asset shall be classified as measured at amortised cost if both of the following conditions are met:

  1. the financial asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows; and
  2. the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

A financial asset shall be measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if both of the following conditions are met:

  1. the financial asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets; and
  2. the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Financial assets that do not meet the above conditions are classified as measured at fair value through profit or loss.

4.2 Reclassification of financial assets

If an entity reclassifies financial assets, it shall apply the reclassification prospectively from the reclassification date. The entity shall not restate any previously recognised gains, losses (including impairment gains or losses) or interest. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

If an entity reclassifies a financial asset out of the amortised cost measurement category and into the fair value through profit or loss measurement category, its fair value is measured at the reclassification date. Any gain or loss arising from a difference between the previous amortised cost of the financial asset and fair value is recognised in profit or loss.

If an entity reclassifies a financial asset out of the fair value through profit or loss measurement category and into the amortised cost measurement category, its fair value at the reclassification date becomes its new gross carrying amount. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

If an entity reclassifies a financial asset out of the amortised cost measurement category and into the fair value through other comprehensive income measurement category, its fair value is measured at the reclassification date. Any gain or loss arising from a difference between the previous amortised cost of the financial asset and fair value is recognised in other comprehensive income. The effective interest rate and the measurement of expected credit losses are not adjusted as a result of the reclassification.

If an entity reclassifies a financial asset out of the fair value through other comprehensive income measurement category and into the amortised cost measurement category, the financial asset is reclassified at its fair value at the reclassification date. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

However, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in other comprehensive income is removed from equity and adjusted against the fair value of the financial asset at the reclassification date. As a result, the financial asset is measured at the reclassification date as if it had always been measured at amortised cost. This adjustment affects other comprehensive income but does not affect profit or loss and therefore is not a reclassification adjustment. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

If an entity reclassifies a financial asset out of the fair value through profit or loss measurement category and into the fair value through other comprehensive income measurement category, the financial asset continues to be measured at fair value. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

If an entity reclassifies a financial asset out of the fair value through other comprehensive income measurement category and into the fair value through profit or loss measurement category, the financial asset continues to be measured at fair value. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in other comprehensive income is reclassified from equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment at the reclassification date. IFFinancial laibilityRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

4.3 Classification of financial liabilities

An entity shall classify all financial liabilities as subsequently measured at amortised cost, except for:

  1. financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. Such liabilities, including derivatives that are liabilities, shall be subsequently measured at fair value.

  2. financial liabilities that arise when a transfer of a financial asset does not qualify for derecognition or when the continuing involvement approach applies.

  3. financial guarantee contracts. After initial recognition, an issuer of such a contract shall (unless (a) or (b) applies) subsequently measure it at the higher of:

    1. the amount of the loss allowance (impairment) and IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

    2. the amount initially recognised less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principles of IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

  4. commitments to provide a loan at a below-market interest rate. An issuer of such a commitment shall (unless (a) applies) subsequently measure it at the higher of:

    1. the amount of the loss allowance (impairment) and IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

    2. the amount initially recognised less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principles of IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

  5. contingent consideration recognised by an acquirer in a business combination to which IFRS 3 Business Combinations applies. Such contingent consideration shall subsequently be measured at fair value with changes recognised in profit or loss. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

An entity may, at initial recognition, irrevocably designate a financial liability as measured at fair value through profit or loss (when a contract contains one or more embedded derivatives and the host is not an asset within the scope of IFRS 9) or when doing so results in more relevant information, because either:

  1. it eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency (sometimes referred to as ‘an accounting mismatch’) that would otherwise arise from measuring assets or liabilities or recognising the gains and losses on them on different bases; or IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

  2. a group of financial liabilities or financial assets and financial liabilities is managed, and its performance is evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with a documented risk management or investment strategy, and information about the group is provided internally on that basis to the entity’s key management personnel.

4.4 Reclassification of financial liabilities

An entity shall not reclassify any financial liability. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

4.5 Classification as embedded derivatives

If a hybrid contract contains a host that is an asset within the scope of IFRS 9, an entity shall apply the requirements for the classification of financial assets to the entire hybrid contract.

If a hybrid contract contains a host that is not an asset within the scope of IFRS 9, an embedded derivative shall be separated from the host and accounted for as a derivative under IFRS 9 if, and only if: IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

  1. the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative are not closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host
  2. a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative would meet the definition of a derivative; and
  3. the hybrid contract is not measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss (i.e. a derivative that is embedded in a financial liability at fair value through profit or loss is not separated). IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

If an embedded derivative is separated, the host contract shall be accounted for in accordance with the appropriate Standards. IFRS 9 does not address whether an embedded derivative shall be presented separately in the statement of financial position.

If a contract contains one or more embedded derivatives and the host is not an asset within the scope of IFRS 9, an entity may designate the entire hybrid contract as at fair value through profit or loss unless: IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

  1. the embedded derivative(s) do(es) not significantly modify the cash flows that otherwise would be required by the contract; or
  2. it is clear with little or no analysis when a similar hybrid instrument is first considered that separation of the embedded derivative(s) is prohibited, such as a prepayment option embedded in a loan that permits the holder to prepay the loan for approximately its amortised cost. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

If an entity is required by IFRS 9 to separate an embedded derivative from its host, but is unable to measure the embedded derivative separately either at acquisition or at the end of a subsequent financial reporting period, it shall designate the entire hybrid contract as at fair value through profit or loss.

5 Measurement

5.1 Initial measurement

Except for trade receivables which do not contain a significant financing component, at initial recognition, an entity shall measure a financial asset or financial liability at its fair value plus or minus, in the case of a financial asset or financial liability not at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of the financial asset or financial liability. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

5.2 Subsequent measurement of financial assetsInitial measurement subsequent measurement

After initial recognition, an entity shall measure a financial asset at: IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

  1. amortised cost; IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments
  2. fair value through other comprehensive income; or
  3. fair value through profit or loss. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

Reference should be made to 4.1 Classification of financial assets above.

Something else -   Loans at below-market interest rates

An entity shall apply the impairment requirements to financial assets that are measured at amortised cost and to financial assets that are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

5.2.1 Amortised cost measurement

Financial assets or liabilities that are measured at amortised costs using the effective interest method (see above 4.1 Classification of financial assets and 4.3 Classification of financial liabilities)

Initial measurement of amortised of a financial asset or financial liability is at its fair value, which is commonly the amount (nominal before impairment) to be received or paid.

Effective interest method IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

Interest revenue shall be calculated by using the effective interest method. This shall be calculated by applying the effective interest rate to the gross carrying amount of a financial asset except for:

  1. purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets. For those financial assets, the entity shall apply the credit-adjusted effective interest rate to the amortised cost of the financial asset from initial recognition. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments
  2. financial assets that are not purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets but subsequently have become credit-impaired financial assets. For those financial assets, the entity shall apply the effective interest rate to the amortised cost of the financial asset in subsequent reporting periods.

An entity that, in a reporting period, calculates interest revenue by applying the effective interest method to the amortised cost of a financial asset, shall, in subsequent reporting periods, calculate the interest revenue by applying the effective interest rate to the gross carrying amount if the credit risk on the financial instrument improves so that the financial asset is no longer credit-impaired and the improvement can be related objectively to an event occurring after the requirements in (b) above were applied (such as an improvement in the borrower’s credit rating).

5.2.2 Fair value through other comprehensive income

There are three ways financial instruments can be measured at fair value through other comprehensive income:

  1. the reporting entity has invested in an equity instrument that is not held for trading and has elected to present gains and losses on that investment in other comprehensive income (without recycling);
  2. the reporting entity has assumed a financial liability and has designated the liability as at fair value through profit or loss and the entity is required to present the effects of changes in the liability’s credit risk in other comprehensive income;
  3. the reporting entity has invested in a financial asset that meets both conditions (see above 4.1 Classification of financial assets) to be measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (with recycling). A gain or loss on a financial asset measured at fair value through other comprehensive income shall be recognised in other comprehensive income, except for impairment gains or losses and foreign exchange gains and losses, until the financial asset is derecognised or reclassified. When the financial asset is derecognised the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in other comprehensive income is reclassified from equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment. If the financial asset is reclassified out of the fair value through other comprehensive income measurement category, the entity shall account for the cumulative gain or loss that was previously recognised in other comprehensive income in accordance with the provisions on reclassification of financial assets. Interest calculated using the effective interest method is recognised in profit or loss.

5.2.3 Fair value through profit or loss

A gain or loss on a financial asset or financial liability that is measured at fair value shall be recognised in profit or loss unless:

  1. it is part of a hedging relationship; IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments
  2. it is an investment in an equity instrument and the entity has elected to present gains and losses on that investment in other comprehensive income;
  3. it is a financial liability designated as at fair value through profit or loss and the entity is required to present the effects of changes in the liability’s credit risk in other comprehensive income; or IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments
  4. it is a financial asset measured at fair value through other comprehensive income. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

5.3 Subsequent measurement of financial liabilities

5.3.1 Liabilities at amortised cost

See 5.2.1 Amortised cost measurement IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

Note: Most liabilities are measured at amortised costs using the effective interest rate method (see 5.2.1) but are simply recorded at their nominal amount/transaction cost because they are paid within a normal payment term. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

5.3.2 Liabilities designated as at fair value through profit or loss

An entity shall present a gain or loss on a financial liability that is designated as at fair value through profit or loss as follows:

  1. The amount of change in the fair value of the financial liability that is attributable to changes in the credit risk of that liability shall be presented in other comprehensive income and
  2. the remaining amount of change in the fair value of the liability shall be presented in profit or loss unless the treatment of the effects of changes in the liability’s credit risk described in (a) would create or enlarge an accounting mismatch in profit or loss. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

6 ImpairmentRebalancing

6.1 Recognition of expected credit losses

An entity shall recognise a loss allowance for expected credit losses on a financial asset that is measured at amortised cost or fair value through other comprehensive income, a lease receivable, a contract asset or a loan commitment and a financial guarantee contract to which the impairment requirements apply.

Subject to paragraphs on purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets, at each reporting date, an entity shall measure the loss allowance for a financial instrument at an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses if the credit risk on that financial instrument has increased significantly since initial recognition.

Subject to paragraphs on purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets, if, at the reporting date, the credit risk on a financial instrument has not increased significantly since initial recognition, an entity shall measure the loss allowance for that financial instrument at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses.

6.2 Purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets

Despite paragraphs on recognition of expected credit losses above, at the reporting date, an entity shall only recognise the cumulative changes in lifetime expected credit losses since initial recognition as a loss allowance for purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

At each reporting date, an entity shall recognise in profit or loss the amount of the change in lifetime expected credit losses as an impairment gain or loss. An entity shall recognise favourable changes in lifetime expected credit losses as an impairment gain, even if the lifetime expected credit losses are less than the amount of expected credit losses that were included in the estimated cash flows on initial recognition. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

6.3 Simplified approach for trade receivables, contract assets and lease receivables

Despite paragraphs above an entity shall always measure the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses for:

  1. trade receivables or contract assets that result from transactions that are within the scope of IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and that:
    1. do not contain a significant financing component in accordance with IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers or
    2. contain a significant financing component in accordance with IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers, if the entity chooses as its accounting policy to measure the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. That accounting policy shall be applied to all such trade receivables or contract assets but may be applied separately to trade receivables and contract assets. IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments
  2. lease receivables that result from transactions that are within the scope of IFRS 16 Leases, if the entity chooses as its accounting policy to measure the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. That accounting policy shall be applied to all lease receivables but may be applied separately to finance and operating lease receivables.

6.4 Measurement of expected credit losses

An entity shall measure expected credit losses of a financial instrument in a way that reflects:

  1. an unbiased and probability-weighted amount that is determined by evaluating a range of possible outcomes;
  2. the time value of money; and IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments
  3. reasonable and supportable information that is available without undue cost or effort at the reporting date about past events, current conditions and forecasts of future economic conditions.

IFRS 9 Complete Snapshot Financial Instruments

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