IFRS Standard: IFRS 16 Leases

IFRS 16 specifies how an IFRS reporter will recognise, measure, present and disclose leases. The standard provides a single lessee accounting model, requiring lessees to recognise assets and liabilities for all leases unless the lease term is 12 months or less or the underlying asset has a low value. Lessors continue to classify leases as operating or finance, with IFRS 16’s approach to lessor accounting substantially unchanged from its predecessor, IAS 17.

IFRS 16 was issued in January 2016 and applies to annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019.

IFRS 16 Objective Scope Recognition exemptions

Objective

1 This Standard sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases. The objective is to ensure that lessees and lessors provide relevant information in a manner that faithfully represents those transactions. This information gives a basis for users of financial statements to assess the effect that leases have on the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of an entity.

2 An entity shall consider the terms and conditions of contracts and all relevant facts and circumstances when applying this Standard. An entity shall apply this Standard consistently to contracts with similar characteristics and in similar circumstances.

Scope

3 An entity shall apply this Standard to all leases, including leases of … Read more

IFRS 16 Identifying a lease

9 At inception of a contract, an entity shall assess whether the contract is, or contains, a lease. A contract is, or contains, a lease if the contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. Paragraphs B9–B31 set out guidance on the assessment of whether a contract is, or contains, a lease.

10 A period of time may be described in terms of the amount of use of an identified asset (for example, the number of production units that an item of equipment will be used to produce).

11 An entity shall reassess whether a contract is, or contains, a lease only if the terms … Read more

IFRS 16 Lease term

18 An entity shall determine the lease term as the non-cancellable period of a lease, together with both:

  1. periods covered by an option to extend the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise that option; and
  2. periods covered by an option to terminate the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain not to exercise that option.

19 In assessing whether a lessee is reasonably certain to exercise an option to extend a lease, or not to exercise an option to terminate a lease, an entity shall consider all relevant facts and circumstances that create an economic incentive for the lessee to exercise the option to extend the lease, or not to exercise the option to terminate the lease, … Read more

IFRS 16 Lessee

Recognition

22 At the commencement date, a lessee shall recognise a right-of-use asset and a lease liability.

Measurement

Initial measurement

Initial measurement of the right-of-use asset

23 At the commencement date, a lessee shall measure the right-of-use asset at cost.

24 The cost of the right-of-use asset shall comprise:

  1. the amount of the initial measurement of the lease liability, as described in paragraph 26;
  2. any lease payments made at or before the commencement date, less any lease incentives received;
  3. any initial direct costs incurred by the lessee; and
  4. an estimate of costs to be incurred by the lessee in dismantling and removing the underlying asset, restoring the site on which it is located or restoring the underlying asset to
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IFRS 16 Lessor

Classification of leases

Application Guidance in Appenbdix B, paragraphs B53–B58

61 A lessor shall classify each of its leases as either an operating lease or a finance lease.

62 A lease is classified as a finance lease if it transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an underlying asset. A lease is classified as an operating lease if it does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an underlying asset.

63 Whether a lease is a finance lease or an operating lease depends on the substance of the transaction rather than the form of the contract. Examples of situations that individually or in combination would normally lead to … Read more

IFRS 16 Sale and leaseback transactions

98 If an entity (the seller-lessee) transfers an asset to another entity (the buyer-lessor) and leases that asset back from the buyer-lessor, both the seller-lessee and the buyer-lessor shall account for the transfer contract and the lease applying paragraphs 99–103.

Assessing whether the transfer of the asset is a sale

99 An entity shall apply the requirements for determining when a performance obligation is satisfied in IFRS 15 to determine whether the transfer of an asset is accounted for as a sale of that asset.

Transfer of the asset is a sale

100 If the transfer of an asset by the seller-lessee satisfies the requirements of IFRS 15 to be accounted for as a sale of … Read more

IFRS 16 Appendix B Application Guidance

This appendix is an integral part of the Standard. It describes the application of paragraphs 1–103 and has the same authority as the other parts of the Standard.

Portfolio application

B1 This Standard specifies the accounting for an individual lease. However, as a practical expedient, an entity may apply this Standard to a portfolio of leases with similar characteristics if the entity reasonably expects that the effects on the financial statements of applying this Standard to the portfolio would not differ materially from applying this Standard to the individual leases within that portfolio. If accounting for a portfolio, an entity shall use estimates and assumptions that reflect the size and composition of the portfolio.

Combination of contracts

B2 In … Read more

IFRS 16 Appendix B Recognition exemption – Low value lease

Recognition exemption: leases for which the underlying asset is of low value

Application Guidance to paragraphs 5 – 8

B3 Except as specified in paragraph B7, this Standard permits a lessee to apply paragraph 6 to account for leases for which the underlying asset is of low value. A lessee shall assess the value of an underlying asset based on the value of the asset when it is new, regardless of the age of the asset being leased.

B4 The assessment of whether an underlying asset is of low value is performed on an absolute basis. Leases of low-value assets qualify for the accounting treatment in paragraph 6 regardless of whether those leases are material to the lessee. The assessment … Read more

IFRS 16 Appendix B – Identifying a Lease

Application Guidance to paragraphs 9 – 11

B9 To assess whether a contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset (see paragraphs B13–B20) for a period of time, an entity shall assess whether, throughout the period of use, the customer has both of the following:

  1. the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the identified asset (as described in paragraphs B21–B23); and
  2. the right to direct the use of the identified asset (as described in paragraphs B24–B30).

B10 If the customer has the right to control the use of an identified asset for only a portion of the term of the contract, the contract contains a lease for that portion … Read more

IFRS 16 Appendix B – Seperating components of a contract

Application Guidance to paragraphs 12 -17

B32 The right to use an underlying asset is a separate lease component if both:

  1. the lessee can benefit from use of the underlying asset either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the lessee. Readily available resources are goods or services that are sold or leased separately (by the lessor or other suppliers) or resources that the lessee has already obtained (from the lessor or from other transactions or events); and
  2. the underlying asset is neither highly dependent on, nor highly interrelated with, the other underlying assets in the contract. For example, the fact that a lessee could decide not to lease the underlying asset without
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