IFRS 9 Objective – Scope

Objective

1.1 The objective of this Standard is to establish principles for the financial reporting of financial assets and financial liabilities that will present relevant and useful information to users of financial statements for their assessment of the amounts, timing and uncertainty of an entity’s future cash flows

Scope

2.1 This Standard shall be applied by all entities to all types of financial instruments except:

  1. those interests in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures that are accounted for in accordance with IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements, IAS 27 Separate Financial Statements or IAS 28 Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures. However, in some cases, IFRS 10, IAS 27 or IAS 28 require or permit an entity to account for an interest in a subsidiary, associate or joint venture in accordance with some or all of the requirements of this Standard. Entities shall also apply this Standard to derivatives on an interest in a subsidiary, associate or joint venture unless the derivative meets the definition of an equity instrument of the entity in IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation.
  2. rights and obligations under leases to which IFRS 16 Leases applies. However:
    1. finance lease receivables (ie net investments in finance leases) and operating lease receivables recognised by a lessor are subject to the derecognition and impairment requirements of this Standard;
    2. lease liabilities recognised by a lessee are subject to the derecognition requirements in paragraph 3.3.1 of this Standard; and
    3. derivatives that are embedded in leases are subject to the embedded derivatives requirements of this Standard.
  3. employers’ rights and obligations under employee benefit plans, to which IAS 19 Employee Benefits applies.
  4. financial instruments issued by the entity that meet the definition of an equity instrument in IAS 32 (including options and warrants) or that are required to be classified as an equity instrument in accordance with paragraphs 16A and 16B or paragraphs 16C and 16D of IAS 32. However, the holder of such equity instruments shall apply this Standard to those instruments, unless they meet the exception in (a).
  5. rights and obligations arising under a contract within the scope of IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts, other than an issuer’s rights and obligations arising under an insurance contract that meets the definition of a financial guarantee contract. However, this Standard applies to (i) a derivative that is embedded in a contract within the scope of IFRS 17, if the derivative is not itself a contract within the scope of IFRS 17; and (ii) an investment component that is separated from a contract within the scope of IFRS 17, if IFRS 17 requires such separation. Moreover, if an issuer of financial guarantee contracts has previously asserted explicitly that it regards such contracts as insurance contracts and has used accounting that is applicable to insurance contracts, the issuer may elect to apply either this Standard or IFRS 17 to such financial guarantee contracts (see paragraphs B2.5–B2.6). The issuer may make that election contract by contract, but the election for each contract is irrevocable.
  6. any forward contract between an acquirer and a selling shareholder to buy or sell an acquiree that will result in a business combination within the scope of IFRS 3 Business Combinations at a future acquisition date. The term of the forward contract should not exceed a reasonable period normally necessary to obtain any required approvals and to complete the transaction.
  7. loan commitments other than those loan commitments described in paragraph 2.3. However, an issuer of loan commitments shall apply the impairment requirements of this Standard to loan commitments that are not otherwise within the scope of this Standard. Also, all loan commitments are subject to the derecognition requirements of this Standard.
  8. financial instruments, contracts and obligations under share-based payment transactions to which IFRS 2 Share-based Payment applies, except for contracts within the scope of paragraphs 2.42.7 of this Standard to which this Standard applies.
  9. rights to payments to reimburse the entity for expenditure that it is required to make to settle a liability that it recognises as a provision in accordance with IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, or for which, in an earlier period, it recognised a provision in accordance with IAS 37.
  10. rights and obligations within the scope of IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers that are financial instruments, except for those that IFRS 15 specifies are accounted for in accordance with this Standard.

2.2 The impairment requirements of this Standard shall be applied to those rights that IFRS 15 specifies are accounted for in accordance with this Standard for the purposes of recognising impairment gains or losses.

2.3 The following loan commitments are within the scope of this Standard:

  1. loan commitments that the entity designates as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss (see paragraph 4.2.2). An entity that has a past practice of selling the assets resulting from its loan commitments shortly after origination shall apply this Standard to all its loan commitments in the same class.
  2. loan commitments that can be settled net in cash or by delivering or issuing another financial instrument. These loan commitments are derivatives. A loan commitment is not regarded as settled net merely because the loan is paid out in installments (for example, a mortgage construction loan that is paid out in instalments in line with the progress of construction).
  3. commitments to provide a loan at a below-market interest rate (see paragraph 4.2.1(d)).

2.4 This Standard shall be applied to those contracts to buy or sell a non-financial item that can be settled net in cash or another financial instrument, or by exchanging financial instruments, as if the contracts were financial instruments, with the exception of contracts that were entered into and continue to be held for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of a non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or usage requirements. However, this Standard shall be applied to those contracts that an entity designates as measured at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with paragraph 2.5.

2.5 A contract to buy or sell a non-financial item that can be settled net in cash or another financial instrument, or by exchanging financial instruments, as if the contract was a financial instrument, may be irrevocably designated as measured at fair value through profit or loss even if it was entered into for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of a non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or usage requirements. This designation is available only at inception of the contract and only if it eliminates or significantly reduces a recognition inconsistency (sometimes referred to as an ‘accounting mismatch’) that would otherwise arise from not recognising that contract because it is excluded from the scope of this Standard (see paragraph 2.4).

2.6 There are various ways in which a contract to buy or sell a non-financial item can be settled net in cash or another financial instrument or by exchanging financial instruments. These include:

  1. when the terms of the contract permit either party to settle it net in cash or another financial instrument or by exchanging financial instruments;
  2. when the ability to settle net in cash or another financial instrument, or by exchanging financial instruments, is not explicit in the terms of the contract, but the entity has a practice of settling similar contracts net in cash or another financial instrument or by exchanging financial instruments (whether with the counterparty, by entering into offsetting contracts or by selling the contract before its exercise or lapse);
  3. when, for similar contracts, the entity has a practice of taking delivery of the underlying and selling it within a short period after delivery for the purpose of generating a profit from short-term fluctuations in price or dealer’s margin; and
  4. when the non-financial item that is the subject of the contract is readily convertible to cash.

2.7 A written option to buy or sell a non-financial item that can be settled net in cash or another financial instrument, or by exchanging financial instruments, in accordance with paragraph 2.6(a) or 2.6(d) is within the scope of this Standard. Such a contract cannot be entered into for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of the non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or usage requirements.

Next chapter: IFRS 9 Recognition and derecognition