IAS 1 Notes

IAS 1 Presentation of Financial StatementsIAS 1 Notes

IAS 1 Notes

Structure

112 The notes shall:

  1. present information about the basis of preparation of the financial statements and the specific accounting policies used in accordance with paragraphs 117–124;
  2. disclose the information required by IFRSs that is not presented elsewhere in the financial statements; and
  3. provide information that is not presented elsewhere in the financial statements, but is relevant to an understanding of any of them.

113 An entity shall, as far as practicable, present notes in a systematic manner. In determining a systematic manner, the entity shall consider the effect on the understandability and comparability of its financial statements. An entity shall cross-reference each item in the statements of financial position and in the statement(s) of profit or loss and other comprehensive income, and in the statements of changes in equity and of cash flows to any related information in the notes.

114 Examples of systematic ordering or grouping of the notes include:

  1. giving prominence to the areas of its activities that the entity considers to be most relevant to an understanding of its financial performance and financial position, such as grouping together information about particular operating activities;
  2. grouping together information about items measured similarly such as assets measured at fair value; or
  3. following the order of the line items in the statement(s) of profit or loss and other comprehensive income and the statement of financial position, such as:
    1. statement of compliance with IFRSs (see paragraph 16);
    2. significant accounting policies applied (see paragraph 117);
    3. supporting information for items presented in the statements of financial position and in the statement(s) of profit or loss and other comprehensive income, and in the statements of changes in equity and of cash flows, in the order in which each statement and each line item is presented; and
    4. other disclosures, including:
      1. contingent liabilities (see IAS 37) and unrecognised contractual commitments; and
      2. non-financial disclosures, eg the entity’s financial risk management objectives and policies (see IFRS 7).

115 [Deleted]

116 An entity may present notes providing information about the basis of preparation of the financial statements and specific accounting policies as a separate section of the financial statements.

Disclosure of accounting policies

117 An entity shall disclose its significant accounting policies comprising:

  1. the measurement basis (or bases) used in preparing the financial statements; and
  2. the other accounting policies used that are relevant to an understanding of the financial statements.

118 It is important for an entity to inform users of the measurement basis or bases used in the financial statements (for example, historical cost, current cost, net realisable value, fair value or recoverable amount) because the basis on which an entity prepares the financial statements significantly affects users’ analysis. When an entity uses more than one measurement basis in the financial statements, for example when particular classes of assets are revalued, it is sufficient to provide an indication of the categories of assets and liabilities to which each measurement basis is applied.

119 In deciding whether a particular accounting policy should be disclosed, management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in reported financial performance and financial position. Each entity considers the nature of its operations and the policies that the users of its financial statements would expect to be disclosed for that type of entity.

Disclosure of particular accounting policies is especially useful to users when those policies are selected from alternatives allowed in IFRSs. An example is disclosure of whether an entity applies the fair value or cost model to its investment property (see IAS 40 Investment Property). Some IFRSs specifically require disclosure of particular accounting policies, including choices made by management between different policies they allow. For example, IAS 16 requires disclosure of the measurement bases used for classes of property, plant and equipment.

120 [Deleted]

121 An accounting policy may be significant because of the nature of the entity’s operations even if amounts for current and prior periods are not material. It is also appropriate to disclose each significant accounting policy that is not specifically required by IFRSs but the entity selects and applies in accordance with IAS 8.

122 An entity shall disclose, along with its significant accounting policies or other notes, the judgements, apart from those involving estimations (see paragraph 125), that management has made in the process of applying the entity’s accounting policies and that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements.

123 In the process of applying the entity’s accounting policies, management makes various judgements, apart from those involving estimations, that can significantly affect the amounts it recognises in the financial statements. For example, management makes judgements in determining:

  1. [deleted]
  2. when substantially all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of financial assets and, for lessors, assets subject to leases are transferred to other entities;
  3. whether, in substance, particular sales of goods are financing arrangements and therefore do not give rise to revenue; and
  4. whether the contractual terms of a financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

124 Some of the disclosures made in accordance with paragraph 122 are required by other IFRSs. For example, IFRS 12 Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities requires an entity to disclose the judgements it has made in determining whether it controls another entity. IAS 40 Investment Property requires disclosure of the criteria developed by the entity to distinguish investment property from owner-occupied property and from property held for sale in the ordinary course of business, when classification of the property is difficult.

Sources of estimation uncertainty

125 An entity shall disclose information about the assumptions it makes about the future, and other major sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period, that have a significant risk of resulting in a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year. In respect of those assets and liabilities, the notes shall include details of:

  1. their nature, and
  2. their carrying amount as at the end of the reporting period.

126 Determining the carrying amounts of some assets and liabilities requires estimation of the effects of uncertain future events on those assets and liabilities at the end of the reporting period. For example, in the absence of recently observed market prices, future-oriented estimates are necessary to measure the recoverable amount of classes of property, plant and equipment, the effect of technological obsolescence on inventories, provisions subject to the future outcome of litigation in progress, and long-term employee benefit liabilities such as pension obligations. These estimates involve assumptions about such items as the risk adjustment to cash flows or discount rates, future changes in salaries and future changes in prices affecting other costs.

127 The assumptions and other sources of estimation uncertainty disclosed in accordance with paragraph 125 relate to the estimates that require management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgements. As the number of variables and assumptions affecting the possible future resolution of the uncertainties increases, those judgements become more subjective and complex, and the potential for a consequential material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities normally increases accordingly.

128 The disclosures in paragraph 125 are not required for assets and liabilities with a significant risk that their carrying amounts might change materially within the next financial year if, at the end of the reporting period, they are measured at fair value based on a quoted price in an active market for an identical asset or liability. Such fair values might change materially within the next financial year but these changes would not arise from assumptions or other sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period.

129 An entity presents the disclosures in paragraph 125 in a manner that helps users of financial statements to understand the judgements that management makes about the future and about other sources of estimation uncertainty. The nature and extent of the information provided vary according to the nature of the assumption and other circumstances. Examples of the types of disclosures an entity makes are:

  1. the nature of the assumption or other estimation uncertainty;
  2. the sensitivity of carrying amounts to the methods, assumptions and estimates underlying their calculation, including the reasons for the sensitivity;
  3. the expected resolution of an uncertainty and the range of reasonably possible outcomes within the next financial year in respect of the carrying amounts of the assets and liabilities affected; and
  4. an explanation of changes made to past assumptions concerning those assets and liabilities, if the uncertainty remains unresolved.

130 This Standard does not require an entity to disclose budget information or forecasts in making the disclosures in paragraph 125.

131 Sometimes it is impracticable to disclose the extent of the possible effects of an assumption or another source of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period. In such cases, the entity discloses that it is reasonably possible, on the basis of existing knowledge, that outcomes within the next financial year that are different from the assumption could require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of the asset or liability affected. In all cases, the entity discloses the nature and carrying amount of the specific asset or liability (or class of assets or liabilities) affected by the assumption.

132 The disclosures in paragraph 122 of particular judgements that management made in the process of applying the entity’s accounting policies do not relate to the disclosures of sources of estimation uncertainty in paragraph 125.

133 Other IFRSs require the disclosure of some of the assumptions that would otherwise be required in accordance with paragraph 125. For example, IAS 37 requires disclosure, in specified circumstances, of major assumptions concerning future events affecting classes of provisions. IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement requires disclosure of significant assumptions (including the valuation technique(s) and inputs) the entity uses when measuring the fair values of assets and liabilities that are carried at fair value.

Capital

134 An entity shall disclose information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the entity’s objectives, policies and processes for managing capital.

135 To comply with paragraph 134, the entity discloses the following:

  1. qualitative information about its objectives, policies and processes for managing capital, including:
    1. a description of what it manages as capital;
    2. when an entity is subject to externally imposed capital requirements, the nature of those requirements and how those requirements are incorporated into the management of capital; and
    3. how it is meeting its objectives for managing capital.
  2. summary quantitative data about what it manages as capital. Some entities regard some financial liabilities (eg some forms of subordinated debt) as part of capital. Other entities regard capital as excluding some components of equity (eg components arising from cash flow hedges).
  3. any changes in (a) and (b) from the previous period.
  4. whether during the period it complied with any externally imposed capital requirements to which it is subject.
  5. when the entity has not complied with such externally imposed capital requirements, the consequences of such non-compliance.

The entity bases these disclosures on the information provided internally to key management personnel.

136 An entity may manage capital in a number of ways and be subject to a number of different capital requirements. For example, a conglomerate may include entities that undertake insurance activities and banking activities and those entities may operate in several jurisdictions. When an aggregate disclosure of capital requirements and how capital is managed would not provide useful information or distorts a financial statement user’ understanding of an entity’s capital resources, the entity shall disclose separate information for each capital requirement to which the entity is subject.

Puttable financial instruments classified as equity

136A For puttable financial instruments classified as equity instruments, an entity shall disclose (to the extent not disclosed elsewhere):

  1. summary quantitative data about the amount classified as equity;
  2. its objectives, policies and processes for managing its obligation to repurchase or redeem the instruments when required to do so by the instrument holders, including any changes from the previous period;
  3. the expected cash outflow on redemption or repurchase of that class of financial instruments; and
  4. information about how the expected cash outflow on redemption or repurchase was determined.

Other disclosures

137 An entity shall disclose in the notes:

  1. the amount of dividends proposed or declared before the financial statements were authorised for issue but not recognised as a distribution to owners during the period, and the related amount per share; and
  2. the amount of any cumulative preference dividends not recognised.

138 An entity shall disclose the following, if not disclosed elsewhere in information published with the financial statements:

  1. the domicile and legal form of the entity, its country of incorporation and the address of its registered office (or principal place of business, if different from the registered office);
  2. a description of the nature of the entity’s operations and its principal activities;
  3. the name of the parent and the ultimate parent of the group; and
  4. if it is a limited life entity, information regarding the length of its life.

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Source EU rules on financial information disclosed by companies

 

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IAS 1 Notes

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