IAS 37 Definitions
10 The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:
A provision is a liability of uncertain timing or amount.
A liability is a present obligation of the entity arising from past events, the settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow from the entity of resources embodying economic benefits.
An obligating event is an event that creates a legal or constructive obligation that results in an entity having no realistic alternative to settling that obligation.
A legal obligation is an obligation that derives from:
- a contract (through its explicit or implicit terms);
- legislation; or
- other operation of law.
A constructive obligation is an obligation that derives from an entity’s actions where:
- by an established pattern of past practice, published policies or a sufficiently specific current statement, the entity has indicated to other parties that it will accept certain responsibilities; and
- as a result, the entity has created a valid expectation on the part of those other parties that it will discharge those responsibilities.
A contingent liability is:
- a possible obligation that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity; or
- a present obligation that arises from past events but is not recognised because:
- it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; or
- the amount of the obligation cannot be measured with sufficient reliability.
A contingent asset is a possible asset that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity.
An onerous contract is a contract in which the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under the contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received under it.
A restructuring is a programme that is planned and controlled by management, and materially changes either:
- the scope of a business undertaken by an entity; or
- the manner in which that business is conducted.
IAS 37 Definitions