IFRS 7 Nature and risk of financial instruments

Nature and extent of risks arising from financial instruments

31 An entity shall disclose information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the nature and extent of risks arising from financial instruments to which the entity is exposed at the end of the reporting period.

32 The disclosures required by paragraphs 33–42 focus on the risks that arise from financial instruments and how they have been managed. These risks typically include, but are not limited to, credit risk, liquidity risk and market risk.

32A Providing qualitative disclosures in the context of quantitative disclosures enables users to link related disclosures and hence form an overall picture of the nature and extent of risks arising from financial instruments. The interaction between qualitative and quantitative disclosures contributes to disclosure of information in a way that better enables users to evaluate an entity’s exposure to risks.

Qualitative disclosures

33 For each type of risk arising from financial instruments, an entity shall disclose:

  1. the exposures to risk and how they arise;
  2. its objectives, policies and processes for managing the risk and the methods used to measure the risk; and
  3. any changes in (a) or (b) from the previous period.

Quantitative disclosures

34 For each type of risk arising from financial instruments, an entity shall disclose:

  1. summary quantitative data about its exposure to that risk at the end of the reporting period. This disclosure shall be based on the information provided internally to key management personnel of the entity (as defined in IAS 24 Related Party Disclosures), for example the entity’s board of directors or chief executive officer.
  2. the disclosures required by paragraphs 35A–42, to the extent not provided in accordance with (a).
  3. concentrations of risk if not apparent from the disclosures made in accordance with (a) and (b).

35 If the quantitative data disclosed as at the end of the reporting period are unrepresentative of an entity’s exposure to risk during the period, an entity shall provide further information that is representative.

Credit risk

Scope and objectives

35A An entity shall apply the disclosure requirements in paragraphs 35F–35N to financial instruments to which the impairment requirements in IFRS 9 are applied. However:

  1. for trade receivables, contract assets and lease receivables, paragraph 35J(a) applies to those trade receivables, contract assets or lease receivables on which lifetime expected credit losses are recognised in accordance with paragraph 5.5.15 of IFRS 9, if those financial assets are modified while more than 30 days past due; and
  2. paragraph 35K(b) does not apply to lease receivables.

35B The credit risk disclosures made in accordance with paragraphs 35F–35N shall enable users of financial statements to understand the effect of credit risk on the amount, timing and uncertainty of future cash flows. To achieve this objective, credit risk disclosures shall provide:

  1. information about an entity’s credit risk management practices and how they relate to the recognition and measurement of expected credit losses, including the methods, assumptions and information used to measure expected credit losses;
  2. quantitative and qualitative information that allows users of financial statements to evaluate the amounts in the financial statements arising from expected credit losses, including changes in the amount of expected credit losses and the reasons for those changes; and
  3. information about an entity’s credit risk exposure (ie the credit risk inherent in an entity’s financial assets and commitments to extend credit) including significant credit risk concentrations.

35C An entity need not duplicate information that is already presented elsewhere, provided that the information is incorporated by cross-reference from the financial statements to other statements, such as a management commentary or risk report that is available to users of the financial statements on the same terms as the financial statements and at the same time. Without the information incorporated by cross-reference, the financial statements are incomplete.

35D To meet the objectives in paragraph 35B, an entity shall (except as otherwise specified) consider how much detail to disclose, how much emphasis to place on different aspects of the disclosure requirements, the appropriate level of aggregation or disaggregation, and whether users of financial statements need additional explanations to evaluate the quantitative information disclosed.

35E If the disclosures provided in accordance with paragraphs 35F–35N are insufficient to meet the objectives in paragraph 35B, an entity shall disclose additional information that is necessary to meet those objectives.

The credit risk management practices

35F An entity shall explain its credit risk management practices and how they relate to the recognition and measurement of expected credit losses. To meet this objective an entity shall disclose information that enables users of financial statements to understand and evaluate:

  1. how an entity determined whether the credit risk of financial instruments has increased significantly since initial recognition, including, if and how:
    1. financial instruments are considered to have low credit risk in accordance with paragraph 5.5.10 of IFRS 9, including the classes of financial instruments to which it applies; and
    2. the presumption in paragraph 5.5.11 of IFRS 9, that there have been significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition when financial assets are more than 30 days past due, has been rebutted;
  2. an entity’s definitions of default, including the reasons for selecting those definitions;
  3. how the instruments were grouped if expected credit losses were measured on a collective basis;
  4. how an entity determined that financial assets are credit-impaired financial assets;
  5. an entity’s write-off policy, including the indicators that there is no reasonable expectation of recovery and information about the policy for financial assets that are written-off but are still subject to enforcement activity; and
  6. how the requirements in paragraph 5.5.12 of IFRS 9 for the modification of contractual cash flows of financial assets have been applied, including how an entity:
    1. determines whether the credit risk on a financial asset that has been modified while the loss allowance was measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses, has improved to the extent that the loss allowance reverts to being measured at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses in accordance with paragraph 5.5.5 of IFRS 9; and
    2. monitors the extent to which the loss allowance on financial assets meeting the criteria in (i) is subsequently remeasured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses in accordance with paragraph 5.5.3 of IFRS 9.

35G An entity shall explain the inputs, assumptions and estimation techniques used to apply the requirements in Section 5.5 of IFRS 9. For this purpose an entity shall disclose:

  1. the basis of inputs and assumptions and the estimation techniques used to:
    1. measure the 12-month and lifetime expected credit losses;
    2. determine whether the credit risk of financial instruments has increased significantly since initial recognition; and
    3. determine whether a financial asset is a credit-impaired financial asset.
  2. how forward-looking information has been incorporated into the determination of expected credit losses, including the use of macroeconomic information; and
  3. changes in the estimation techniques or significant assumptions made during the reporting period and the reasons for those changes.

Quantitative and qualitative information about amounts arising from expected credit losses

35H To explain the changes in the loss allowance and the reasons for those changes, an entity shall provide, by class of financial instrument, a reconciliation from the opening balance to the closing balance of the loss allowance, in a table, showing separately the changes during the period for:

  1. the loss allowance measured at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses;
  2. the loss allowance measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses for:
    1. financial instruments for which credit risk has increased significantly since initial recognition but that are not credit-impaired financial assets;
    2. financial assets that are credit-impaired at the reporting date (but that are not purchased or originated credit-impaired); and
    3. trade receivables, contract assets or lease receivables for which the loss allowances are measured in accordance with paragraph 5.5.15 of IFRS 9.
  3. financial assets that are purchased or originated credit-impaired. In addition to the reconciliation, an entity shall disclose the total amount of undiscounted expected credit losses at initial recognition on financial assets initially recognised during the reporting period.

35I To enable users of financial statements to understand the changes in the loss allowance disclosed in accordance with paragraph 35H, an entity shall provide an explanation of how significant changes in the gross carrying amount of financial instruments during the period contributed to changes in the loss allowance. The information shall be provided separately for financial instruments that represent the loss allowance as listed in paragraph 35H(a)–(c) and shall include relevant qualitative and quantitative information. Examples of changes in the gross carrying amount of financial instruments that contributed to the changes in the loss allowance may include:

  1. changes because of financial instruments originated or acquired during the reporting period;
  2. the modification of contractual cash flows on financial assets that do not result in a derecognition of those financial assets in accordance with IFRS 9;
  3. changes because of financial instruments that were derecognised (including those that were written-off) during the reporting period; and
  4. changes arising from whether the loss allowance is measured at an amount equal to 12-month or lifetime expected credit losses.

35J To enable users of financial statements to understand the nature and effect of modifications of contractual cash flows on financial assets that have not resulted in derecognition and the effect of such modifications on the measurement of expected credit losses, an entity shall disclose:

  1. the amortised cost before the modification and the net modification gain or loss recognised for financial assets for which the contractual cash flows have been modified during the reporting period while they had a loss allowance measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses; and
  2. the gross carrying amount at the end of the reporting period of financial assets that have been modified since initial recognition at a time when the loss allowance was measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses and for which the loss allowance has changed during the reporting period to an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses.

35K To enable users of financial statements to understand the effect of collateral and other credit enhancements on the amounts arising from expected credit losses, an entity shall disclose by class of financial instrument:

  1. the amount that best represents its maximum exposure to credit risk at the end of the reporting period without taking account of any collateral held or other credit enhancements (eg netting agreements that do not qualify for offset in accordance with IAS 32).
  2. a narrative description of collateral held as security and other credit enhancements, including:
    1. a description of the nature and quality of the collateral held;
    2. an explanation of any significant changes in the quality of that collateral or credit enhancements as a result of deterioration or changes in the collateral policies of the entity during the reporting period; and
    3. information about financial instruments for which an entity has not recognised a loss allowance because of the collateral.
  3. quantitative information about the collateral held as security and other credit enhancements (for example, quantification of the extent to which collateral and other credit enhancements mitigate credit risk) for financial assets that are credit-impaired at the reporting date.

35L An entity shall disclose the contractual amount outstanding on financial assets that were written off during the reporting period and are still subject to enforcement activity.

Credit risk exposure

35M To enable users of financial statements to assess an entity’s credit risk exposure and understand its significant credit risk concentrations, an entity shall disclose, by credit risk rating grades, the gross carrying amount of financial assets and the exposure to credit risk on loan commitments and financial guarantee contracts. This information shall be provided separately for financial instruments:

  1. for which the loss allowance is measured at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses;
  2. for which the loss allowance is measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses and that are:
    1. financial instruments for which credit risk has increased significantly since initial recognition but that are not credit-impaired financial assets;
    2. financial assets that are credit-impaired at the reporting date (but that are not purchased or originated credit-impaired); and
    3. trade receivables, contract assets or lease receivables for which the loss allowances are measured in accordance with paragraph 5.5.15 of IFRS 9.
  3. that are purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets.

35N For trade receivables, contract assets and lease receivables to which an entity applies paragraph 5.5.15 of IFRS 9, the information provided in accordance with paragraph 35M may be based on a provision matrix (see paragraph B5.5.35 of IFRS 9).

36 For all financial instruments within the scope of this IFRS, but to which the impairment requirements in IFRS 9 are not applied, an entity shall disclose by class of financial instrument:

  1. the amount that best represents its maximum exposure to credit risk at the end of the reporting period without taking account of any collateral held or other credit enhancements (eg netting agreements that do not quality for offset in accordance with IAS 32); this disclosure is not required for financial instruments whose carrying amount best represents the maximum exposure to credit risk.
  2. a description of collateral held as security and other credit enhancements, and their financial effect (eg quantification of the extent to which collateral and other credit enhancements mitigate credit risk) in respect of the amount that best represents the maximum exposure to credit risk (whether disclosed in accordance with (a) or represented by the carrying amount of a financial instrument).
  3. [deleted]
  4. [deleted]

37 [Deleted]

Collateral and other credit enhancements obtained

38 When an entity obtains financial or non-financial assets during the period by taking possession of collateral it holds as security or calling on other credit enhancements (eg guarantees), and such assets meet the recognition criteria in other IFRSs, an entity shall disclose for such assets held at the reporting date:

  1. the nature and carrying amount of the assets; and
  2. when the assets are not readily convertible into cash, its policies for disposing of such assets or for using them in its operations.

Liquidity risk

39 An entity shall disclose:

  1. a maturity analysis for non-derivative financial liabilities (including issued financial guarantee contracts) that shows the remaining contractual maturities.
  2. a maturity analysis for derivative financial liabilities. The maturity analysis shall include the remaining contractual maturities for those derivative financial liabilities for which contractual maturities are essential for an understanding of the timing of the cash flows (see paragraph B11B).
  3. a description of how it manages the liquidity risk inherent in (a) and (b).

Market risk

Sensitivity analysis

40 Unless an entity complies with paragraph 41, it shall disclose:

  1. a sensitivity analysis for each type of market risk to which the entity is exposed at the end of the reporting period, showing how profit or loss and equity would have been affected by changes in the relevant risk variable that were reasonably possible at that date;
  2. the methods and assumptions used in preparing the sensitivity analysis; and
  3. changes from the previous period in the methods and assumptions used, and the reasons for such changes.

41 If an entity prepares a sensitivity analysis, such as value-at-risk, that reflects interdependencies between risk variables (eg interest rates and exchange rates) and uses it to manage financial risks, it may use that sensitivity analysis in place of the analysis specified in paragraph 40. The entity shall also disclose:

  1. an explanation of the method used in preparing such a sensitivity analysis, and of the main parameters and assumptions underlying the data provided; and
  2. an explanation of the objective of the method used and of limitations that may result in the information not fully reflecting the fair value of the assets and liabilities involved.

Other market risk disclosures

42 When the sensitivity analyses disclosed in accordance with paragraph 40 or 41 are unrepresentative of a risk inherent in a financial instrument (for example because the year-end exposure does not reflect the exposure during the year), the entity shall disclose that fact and the reason it believes the sensitivity analyses are unrepresentative.