SME Hyperinflation

Section 31 Hyperinflation SME Hyperinflation

Scope of this section

31.1 This section applies to an entity whose functional currency is the currency of a hyperinflationary economy. It requires such an entity to prepare financial statements that have been adjusted for the effects of hyperinflation.

Hyperinflationary economy

31.2 This section does not establish an absolute rate at which an economy is deemed hyperinflationary. An entity shall make that judgement by considering all available information including, but not limited to, the following possible indicators of hyperinflation:

  1. the general population prefers to keep its wealth in non-monetary assets or in a relatively stable foreign currency. Amounts of local currency held are immediately invested to maintain purchasing power.
  2. the general population regards monetary amounts not in terms of the local currency but in terms of a relatively stable foreign currency. Prices may be quoted in that currency.
  3. sales and purchases on credit take place at prices that compensate for the expected loss of purchasing power during the credit period, even if the period is short.
  4. interest rates, wages and prices are linked to a price index.
  5. the cumulative inflation rate over three years is approaching, or exceeds, 100 per cent.

Measuring unit in the financial statements

31.3 All amounts in the financial statements of an entity whose functional currency is the currency of a hyperinflationary economy shall be stated in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of the reporting period. The comparative information for the previous period required by paragraph 3.14, and any information presented in respect of earlier periods, shall also be stated in terms of the measuring unit current at the reporting date.

31.4 The restatement of financial statements in accordance with this section requires the use of a general price index that reflects changes in general purchasing power. In most economies there is a recognised general price index, normally produced by the government, that entities will follow.

Procedures for restating historical cost financial statements

Statement of financial position

31.5 Statement of financial position amounts not expressed in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of the reporting period are restated by applying a general price index.

31.6 Monetary items are not restated because they are expressed in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of the reporting period. Monetary items are money held and items to be received or paid in money.

31.7 Assets and liabilities linked by agreement to changes in prices, such as index-linked bonds and loans, are adjusted in accordance with the agreement and presented at this adjusted amount in the restated statement of financial
position.

31.8 All other assets and liabilities are non-monetary:

  1. some non-monetary items are carried at amounts current at the end of the reporting period, such as net realisable value and fair value, so they are not restated. All other non-monetary assets and liabilities are restated.
  2. most non-monetary items are carried at cost or cost less depreciation; hence they are expressed at amounts current at their date of acquisition. The restated cost, or cost less depreciation, of each item is determined by applying to its historical cost and accumulated depreciation the change in a general price index from the date of acquisition to the end of the reporting period.(ba) some non-monetary items are carried at amounts current at dates other than that of acquisition or the reporting date, for example, property, plant and equipment that has been revalued at some earlier date. In these cases, the carrying amounts are restated from the date of the revaluation.
  3. the restated amount of a non-monetary item is reduced, in accordance with Section 27 Impairment of Assets, when it exceeds its recoverable amount.

31.9 At the beginning of the first period of application of this section, the components of equity, except retained earnings and any revaluation surplus, are restated by applying a general price index from the dates the components were contributed or otherwise arose. Any revaluation surplus that arose in previous periods is eliminated. Restated retained earnings are derived from all the other amounts in the restated statement of financial position.

31.10 At the end of the first period and in subsequent periods, all components of owners’ equity are restated by applying a general price index from the beginning of the period or the date of contribution, if later. The changes for the period in owners’ equity are disclosed in accordance with Section 6 Statement of Changes in Equity and Statement of Income and Retained Earnings.

Statement of comprehensive income and income statement

31.11 All items in the statement of comprehensive income (and in the income statement, if presented) shall be expressed in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of the reporting period. Consequently, all amounts need to be restated by applying the change in the general price index from the dates when the items of income and expenses were initially recognised in the financial statements. If general inflation is approximately even throughout the period, and the items of income and expense arose approximately evenly throughout the period, an average rate of inflation may be appropriate.

Statement of cash flows

31.12 An entity shall express all items in the statement of cash flows in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of the reporting period.

Gain or loss on net monetary position

31.13 In a period of inflation, an entity holding an excess of monetary assets over monetary liabilities loses purchasing power, and an entity with an excess of monetary liabilities over monetary assets gains purchasing power, to the extent the assets and liabilities are not linked to a price level. An entity shall include in profit or loss the gain or loss on the net monetary position. An entity shall offset the adjustment to those assets and liabilities linked by agreement to changes in prices made in accordance with paragraph 31.7 against the gain or loss on net monetary position.

Economies ceasing to be hyperinflationary

31.14 When an economy ceases to be hyperinflationary and an entity discontinues the preparation and presentation of financial statements prepared in accordance with this section, it shall treat the amounts expressed in the presentation currency at the end of the previous reporting period as the basis for the carrying amounts in its subsequent financial statements.

Disclosures

31.15 An entity to which this section applies shall disclose the following:

  1. the fact that financial statements and other prior period data have been restated for changes in the general purchasing power of the functional currency;
  2. the identity and level of the price index at the reporting date and changes during the current reporting period and the previous reporting period; and
  3. amount of gain or loss on monetary items.

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SME Hyperinflation