SME Impairment of assets

Section 27 Impairment of Assets SME Impairment of assets

Objective and scope

27.1 An impairment loss occurs when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. This section shall be applied in accounting for the impairment of all assets other than the following, for which other sections of this Standard establish impairment requirements:

  1. deferred tax assets (see Section 29 Income Tax);
  2. assets arising from employee benefits (see Section 28 Employee Benefits);
  3. financial assets within the scope of Section 11 Basic Financial Instruments or Section 12 Other Financial Instrument Issues;
  4. investment property measured at fair value (see Section 16 Investment Property);
  5. biological assets related to agricultural activity measured at fair value less estimated costs to sell (see Section 34 Specialised Activities); and
  6. assets arising from construction contracts (see Section 23 Revenue).

Impairment of inventories

Selling price less costs to complete and sell

27.2 An entity shall assess at each reporting date whether any inventories are impaired. The entity shall make the assessment by comparing the carrying amount of each item of inventory (or group of similar items—see paragraph 27.3) with its selling price less costs to complete and sell. If an item of inventory (or group of similar items) is impaired, the entity shall reduce the carrying amount
of the inventory (or the group) to its selling price less costs to complete and sell. That reduction is an impairment loss and it is recognised immediately in profit or loss.

27.3 If it is impracticable to determine the selling price less costs to complete and sell for inventories item by item, the entity may group items of inventory relating to the same product line that have similar purposes or end uses and are produced and marketed in the same geographical area for the purpose of assessing impairment.

Reversal of impairment

27.4 An entity shall make a new assessment of selling price less costs to complete and sell at each subsequent reporting date. When the circumstances that previously caused inventories to be impaired no longer exist or when there is clear evidence of an increase in selling price less costs to complete and sell because of changed economic circumstances, the entity shall reverse the amount of the impairment (ie the reversal is limited to the amount of the original impairment loss) so that the new carrying amount is the lower of the cost and the revised selling price less costs to complete and sell.

Impairment of assets other than inventories

General principles

27.5 If, and only if, the recoverable amount of an asset is less than its carrying amount, the entity shall reduce the carrying amount of the asset to its recoverable amount. That reduction is an impairment loss. Paragraphs 27.11–27.20 provide guidance on measuring recoverable amount.

27.6 An entity shall recognise an impairment loss immediately in profit or loss, unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount in accordance with the revaluation model in Section 17 Property, Plant and Equipment. Any impairment loss of a revalued asset shall be treated as a revaluation decrease in accordance with paragraph 17.15D.

Indicators of impairment

27.7 An entity shall assess at each reporting date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the entity shall estimate the recoverable amount of the asset. If there is no indication of impairment, it is not necessary to estimate the recoverable amount.

27.8 If it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of the individual asset, an entity shall estimate the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. This may be the case because measuring recoverable amount requires forecasting cash flows and sometimes individual assets do not generate cash flows by themselves. An asset’s cash-generating unit is the smallest identifiable group of assets that includes the asset and generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets.

27.9 In assessing whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired, an entity shall consider, as a minimum, the following indications:

External sources of information

(a) during the period, an asset’s market value has declined significantly more than would be expected as a result of the passage of time or normal use.
(b) significant changes with an adverse effect on the entity have taken place during the period, or will take place in the near future, in the technological, market, economic or legal environment in which the entity operates or in the market to which an asset is dedicated.
(c) market interest rates or other market rates of return on investments have increased during the period, and those increases are likely to affect materially the discount rate used in calculating an asset’s value in use and decrease the asset’s fair value less costs to sell.
(d) the carrying amount of the net assets of the entity is more than the estimated fair value of the entity as a whole (such an estimate may have been made, for example, in relation to the potential sale of part or all of the entity).

Internal sources of information

(e) evidence is available of obsolescence or physical damage of an asset.
(f) significant changes with an adverse effect on the entity have taken place during the period, or are expected to take place in the near future, in the extent to which, or manner in which, an asset is used or is expected to be used. These changes include the asset becoming idle, plans to discontinue or restructure the operation to which an asset belongs and plans to dispose of an asset before the previously expected date.
(g) evidence is available from internal reporting that indicates that the economic performance of an asset is, or will be, worse than expected. In this context economic performance includes operating results and cash flows.

27.10 If there is an indication that an asset may be impaired, this may indicate that the entity should review the remaining useful life, the depreciation (amortisation) method or the residual value for the asset and adjust it in accordance with the section of this Standard applicable to the asset (for example, Section 17 and Section 18 Intangible Assets other than Goodwill), even if no impairment loss is recognised for the asset.

Measuring recoverable amount

27.11 The recoverable amount of an asset or a cash-generating unit is the higher of its fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. If it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, references in paragraphs 27.12–27.20 to an asset should be read as references also to an asset’s cash-generating unit.

27.12 It is not always necessary to determine both an asset’s fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. If either of these amounts exceeds the asset’s carrying amount, the asset is not impaired and it is not necessary to estimate the other amount.

27.13 If there is no reason to believe that an asset’s value in use materially exceeds its fair value less costs to sell, the asset’s fair value less costs to sell may be used as its recoverable amount. This will often be the case for an asset that is held for disposal.

Fair value less costs to sell

27.14 Fair value less costs to sell is the amount obtainable from the sale of an asset in an arm’s length transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties, less the costs of disposal (paragraphs 11.27–11.32 provide guidance on fair value measurement).

Value in use

27.15 Value in use is the present value of the future cash flows expected to be derived from an asset. This present value calculation involves the following steps:

  1. estimating the future cash inflows and outflows to be derived from continuing use of the asset and from its ultimate disposal; and
  2. applying the appropriate discount rate to those future cash flows.

27.16 The following elements shall be reflected in the calculation of an asset’s value in use:

  1. an estimate of the future cash flows the entity expects to derive from the asset;
  2. expectations about possible variations in the amount or timing of those future cash flows;
  3. the time value of money, represented by the current market risk-free rate of interest;
  4. the price for bearing the uncertainty inherent in the asset; and
  5. other factors, such as illiquidity, that market participants would reflect in pricing the future cash flows the entity expects to derive from the asset.

27.17 In measuring value in use, estimates of future cash flows shall include:

  1. projections of cash inflows from the continuing use of the asset;
  2. projections of cash outflows that are necessarily incurred to generate the cash inflows from continuing use of the asset (including cash outflows to prepare the asset for use) and can be directly attributed, or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis, to the asset; and
  3. net cash flows, if any, expected to be received (or paid) for the disposal of the asset at the end of its useful life in an arm’s length transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties.

The entity may wish to use any recent financial budgets or forecasts to estimate the cash flows, if available. To estimate cash flow projections beyond the period covered by the most recent budgets or forecasts an entity may wish to  extrapolate the projections based on the budgets or forecasts using a steady or declining growth rate for subsequent years, unless an increasing rate can be
justified.

27.18 Estimates of future cash flows shall not include:

  1. cash inflows or outflows from financing activities; or
  2. income tax receipts or payments.

27.19 Future cash flows shall be estimated for the asset in its current condition. Estimates of future cash flows shall not include estimated future cash inflows or outflows that are expected to arise from:

  1. a future restructuring to which an entity is not yet committed; or
  2. improving or enhancing the asset’s performance.

27.20 The discount rate (rates) used in the present value calculation shall be a pre-tax rate (rates) that reflect(s) current market assessments of:

  1. the time value of money; and
  2. the risks specific to the asset for which the future cash flow estimates have not been adjusted.

The discount rate (rates) used to measure an asset’s value in use shall not reflect risks for which the future cash flow estimates have been adjusted, to avoid double-counting.

Recognising and measuring an impairment loss for a cash-generating unit

27.21 An impairment loss shall be recognised for a cash-generating unit if, and only if, the recoverable amount of the unit is less than the carrying amount of the unit. The impairment loss shall be allocated to reduce the carrying amount of the assets of the unit in the following order:

  1. first, to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the cash-generating unit; and
  2. then, to the other assets of the unit pro rata on the basis of the carrying amount of each asset in the cash-generating unit.

27.22 However, an entity shall not reduce the carrying amount of any asset in the cash-generating unit below the highest of:

  1. its fair value less costs to sell (if determinable);
  2. its value in use (if determinable); and
  3. zero.

27.23 Any excess amount of the impairment loss that cannot be allocated to an asset because of the restriction in paragraph 27.22 shall be allocated to the other assets of the unit pro rata on the basis of the carrying amount of those other assets.

Additional requirements for impairment of goodwill

27.24 Goodwill, by itself, cannot be sold. Nor does it generate cash flows to an entity that are independent of the cash flows of other assets. As a consequence, the fair value of goodwill cannot be measured directly. Consequently, the fair value of goodwill must be derived from measurement of the fair value of the cash-generating unit(s) of which the goodwill is a part.

27.25 For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill acquired in a business combination shall, from the acquisition date, be allocated to each of the acquirer’s cash-generating units that is expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination, irrespective of whether other assets or liabilities of the acquiree are assigned to those units.

27.26 Part of the recoverable amount of a cash-generating unit is attributable to the non-controlling interest in goodwill. For the purpose of impairment testing a non-wholly-owned cash-generating unit with goodwill, the carrying amount of that unit is notionally adjusted, before being compared with its recoverable amount, by grossing up the carrying amount of goodwill allocated to the unit to include the goodwill attributable to the non-controlling interest. This notionally adjusted carrying amount is then compared with the recoverable amount of the unit to determine whether the cash-generating unit is impaired.

27.27 If goodwill cannot be allocated to individual cash-generating units (or groups of cash-generating units) on a non-arbitrary basis, then for the purposes of testing goodwill the entity shall test the impairment of goodwill by determining the recoverable amount of either:

  1. the acquired entity in its entirety, if the goodwill relates to an acquired entity that has not been integrated (integrated means the acquired business has been restructured or dissolved into the reporting entity or other subsidiaries); or
  2. the entire group of entities, excluding any entities that have not been integrated, if the goodwill relates to an entity that has been integrated.

In applying this paragraph, an entity will need to separate goodwill into goodwill relating to entities that have been integrated and goodwill relating to entities that have not been integrated. Also the entity shall follow the requirements for cash-generating units in this section when calculating the recoverable amount of, and allocating impairment losses and reversals to assets belonging to, the acquired entity or group of entities.

Reversal of an impairment loss

27.28 An impairment loss recognised for goodwill shall not be reversed in a subsequent period.

27.29 For all assets other than goodwill, an entity shall assess at each reporting date whether there is any indication that an impairment loss recognised in prior periods may no longer exist or may have decreased. Indications that an impairment loss may have decreased or may no longer exist are generally the opposite of those set out in paragraph 27.9. If any such indication exists, the entity shall determine whether all or part of the prior impairment loss should be reversed. The procedure for making that determination will depend on whether the prior impairment loss on the asset was based on:

  1. the recoverable amount of that individual asset (see paragraph 27.30); or
  2. the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs (see paragraph 27.31).

Reversal where recoverable amount was estimated for an individual impaired asset

27.30 When the prior impairment loss was based on the recoverable amount of the individual impaired asset, the following requirements apply:

  1. the entity shall estimate the recoverable amount of the asset at the current reporting date.
  2. if the estimated recoverable amount of the asset exceeds its carrying amount, the entity shall increase the carrying amount to recoverable amount, subject to the limitation described in (c). That increase is a reversal of an impairment loss. The entity shall recognise the reversal immediately in profit or loss, unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount in accordance with the revaluation model in paragraph 17.15B. Any reversal of an impairment loss of a revalued asset shall be treated as a revaluation increase in accordance with paragraph 17.15C.
  3. the reversal of an impairment loss shall not increase the carrying amount of the asset above the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of amortisation or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years.
  4. after a reversal of an impairment loss is recognised, the entity shall adjust the depreciation (amortisation) charge for the asset in future periods to allocate the asset’s revised carrying amount, less its residual value (if any), on a systematic basis over its remaining useful life.

Reversal when recoverable amount was estimated for a cash-generating unit

27.31 When the original impairment loss was based on the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs, the following requirements apply:

  1. the entity shall estimate the recoverable amount of that cash-generating unit at the current reporting date.
  2. if the estimated recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit exceeds its carrying amount, that excess is a reversal of an impairment loss. The entity shall allocate the amount of that reversal to the assets of the unit, except for goodwill, pro rata with the carrying amounts of those assets, subject to the limitation described in (c). Those increases in carrying amounts shall be treated as reversals of impairment losses for individual assets and be recognised immediately in profit or loss, unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount in accordance with the revaluation model in paragraph 17.15B. Any reversal of an impairment loss of a revalued asset shall be treated as a revaluation increase in accordance with paragraph 17.15C.
  3. in allocating a reversal of an impairment loss for a cash-generating unit, the reversal shall not increase the carrying amount of any asset above the lower of:
    1. its recoverable amount; and
    2. the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of amortisation or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior periods.
  4. any excess amount of the reversal of the impairment loss that cannot be allocated to an asset because of the restriction in (c) shall be allocated pro rata to the other assets of the cash-generating unit, except for goodwill.
  5. after a reversal of an impairment loss is recognised, if applicable, the entity shall adjust the depreciation (amortisation) charge for each asset in the cash-generating unit in future periods to allocate the asset’s revised carrying amount, less its residual value (if any), on a systematic basis over its remaining useful life.

Disclosures

27.32 An entity shall disclose the following for each class of assets indicated in paragraph 27.33:

  1. the amount of impairment losses recognised in profit or loss during the period and the line item(s) in the statement of comprehensive income (and in the income statement, if presented) in which those impairment losses are included; and
  2. the amount of reversals of impairment losses recognised in profit or loss during the period and the line item(s) in the statement of comprehensive income (and in the income statement, if presented) in which those impairment losses are reversed.

27.33 An entity shall disclose the information required by paragraph 27.32 for each of the following classes of asset:

  1. inventories;
  2. property, plant and equipment (including investment property accounted for by the cost method);
  3. goodwill;
  4. intangible assets other than goodwill;
  5. investments in associates; and
  6. investments in joint ventures.

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SME Impairment of assets