SME Statement of Cash Flows

Last Updated on 12/02/2020 by 75385885

Section 7 SME Statement of Cash Flows

Scope of this section

7.1 This section sets out the information that is to be presented in a statement of cash flows and how to present it. The statement of cash flows provides information about the changes in cash and cash equivalents of an entity for a reporting period, showing separately changes from operating activities, investing activities and financing activities.

Cash equivalents

7.2 Cash equivalents are short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and that are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. They are held to meet short-term cash commitments instead of for investment or other purposes. Consequently, an investment normally qualifies as a cash equivalent only when it has a short maturity of, say, three months or less from the date of acquisition. Bank overdrafts are normally considered financing activities similar to borrowings. However, if they are repayable on demand and form an integral part of an entity’s cash management, bank overdrafts are a component of cash and cash equivalents.

Information to be presented in the statement of cash flows

7.3 An entity shall present a statement of cash flows that presents cash flows for a reporting period classified by operating activities, investing activities and financing activities.

Operating activities

7.4 Operating activities are the core of revenue-producing activities of the entity. Consequently, cash flows from operating activities generally result from the transactions and other events and conditions that enter into the determination of profit or loss. Examples of cash flows from operating activities are:

  1. cash receipts from the sale of goods and the rendering of services;
  2. cash receipts from royalties, fees, commissions and other revenue;
  3. cash payments to suppliers for goods and services;
  4. cash payments to and on behalf of employees;
  5. cash payments or refunds of income tax, unless they can be specifically identified with financing and investing activities; and
  6. cash receipts and payments from investments, loans and other contracts held for dealing or trading purposes, which are similar to inventory acquired specifically for resale.
Something else -   SME Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements

Some transactions, such as the sale of an item of plant by a manufacturing entity, may give rise to a gain or loss that is included in profit or loss. However, the cash flows relating to such transactions are cash flows from investing activities.

Investing activities

7.5 Investing activities are the acquisition and disposal of long-term assets and other investments not included in cash equivalents. Examples of cash flows arising from investing activities are:

  1. cash payments to acquire property, plant and equipment (including self-constructed property, plant and equipment), intangible assets and other long-term assets;
  2. cash receipts from sales of property, plant and equipment, intangibles and other long-term assets;
  3. cash payments to acquire equity or debt instruments of other entities and interests in joint ventures (other than payments for those instruments classified as cash equivalents or held for dealing or trading);
  4. cash receipts from sales of equity or debt instruments of other entities and interests in joint ventures (other than receipts for those instruments classified as cash equivalents or held for dealing or trading);
  5. cash advances and loans made to other parties;
  6. cash receipts from the repayment of advances and loans made to other parties;
  7. cash payments for futures contracts, forward contracts, option contracts and swap contracts, except when the contracts are held for dealing or trading, or the payments are classified as financing activities; and
  8. cash receipts from futures contracts, forward contracts, option contracts and swap contracts, except when the contracts are held for dealing or trading, or the receipts are classified as financing activities.

When a contract is accounted for as a hedge (see Section 12 Other Financial Instrument Issues), an entity shall classify the cash flows of the contract in the same manner as the cash flows of the item being hedged.

Financing activities

7.6 Financing activities are activities that result in changes in the size and composition of the contributed equity and borrowings of an entity. Examples of cash flows arising from financing activities are:

  1. cash proceeds from issuing shares or other equity instruments;
  2. cash payments to owners to acquire or redeem the entity’s shares;
  3. cash proceeds from issuing debentures, loans, notes, bonds, mortgages and other short-term or long-term borrowings;
  4. cash repayments of amounts borrowed; and
  5. cash payments by a lessee for the reduction of the outstanding liability relating to a finance lease.

Reporting cash flows from operating activities

7.7 An entity shall present cash flows from operating activities using either:

  1. the indirect method, whereby profit or loss is adjusted for the effects of non-cash transactions, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments, and items of income or expense associated with investing or financing cash flows, or
  2. the direct method, whereby major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments are disclosed.
Something else -   SME Intangible Assets other than Goodwill

Indirect method

7.8 Under the indirect method, the net cash flow from operating activities is determined by adjusting profit or loss for the effects of:

  1. changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables;
  2. non-cash items such as depreciation, provisions, deferred tax, accrued income (expenses) not yet received (paid) in cash, unrealised foreign currency gains and losses, undistributed profits of associates, and non-controlling interests; and
  3. all other items for which the cash effects relate to investing or financing.

Direct method

7.9 Under the direct method, net cash flow from operating activities is presented by disclosing information about major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments. Such information may be obtained either:

  1. from the accounting records of the entity; or
  2. by adjusting sales, cost of sales and other items in the statement of comprehensive income (or the income statement, if presented) for:
    1. changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables;
    2. other non-cash items; and
    3. other items for which the cash effects are investing or financing cash flows.

Reporting cash flows from investing and financing activities

7.10 An entity shall present separately major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments arising from investing and financing activities. The aggregate cash flows arising from acquisitions and from disposals of subsidiaries or other business units shall be presented separately and classified as investing activities.

Foreign currency cash flows

7.11 An entity shall record cash flows arising from transactions in a foreign currency in the entity’s functional currency by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the cash flow. If and when exchange rates do not fluctuate significantly an exchange rate that approximates the actual rate can be used. Otherwise an average rate for the period, to translate cash in- and outflows.

7.12 The entity shall translate cash flows of a foreign subsidiary at the exchange rates between the entity’s functional currency and the foreign currency at the dates of the cash flows.

7.13 Unrealised gains and losses arising from changes in foreign currency exchange rates are not cash flows. However, to reconcile cash and cash equivalents at the beginning and the end of the period, the effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents held or due in a foreign currency must be presented in the statement of cash flows. Consequently, the entity shall remeasure cash and cash equivalents held during the reporting period (such as amounts of foreign currency held and foreign currency bank accounts) at period-end exchange rates. The entity shall present the resulting unrealised gain or loss separately from cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities.

Interest and dividends

7.14 An entity shall present separately cash flows from interest and dividends received and paid. The entity shall classify cash flows consistently from period to period as operating, investing or financing activities.

7.15 An entity may classify interest paid and interest and dividends received as operating cash flows because they are included in profit or loss. Alternatively, the entity may classify interest paid and interest and dividends received as financing cash flows and investing cash flows respectively, because they are costs of obtaining financial resources or returns on investments.

Something else -   SME Basic Financial Instruments

7.16 An entity may classify dividends paid as a financing cash flow because they are a cost of obtaining financial resources. Alternatively, the entity may classify dividends paid as a component of cash flows from operating activities because they are paid out of operating cash flows.

Income tax

7.17 An entity shall present separately cash flows arising from income tax and shall classify them as cash flows from operating activities unless they can be specifically identified with financing and investing activities. When tax cash flows are allocated over more than one class of activity, the entity shall disclose the total amount of taxes paid.

Non-cash transactions

7.18 An entity shall exclude from the statement of cash flows investing and financing transactions that do not require the use of cash or cash equivalents. An entity shall disclose such transactions elsewhere in the financial statements in a way that provides all the relevant information about those investing and financing activities.

7.19 Many investing and financing activities do not have a direct impact on current cash flows even though they affect the capital and asset structure of an entity. The exclusion of non-cash transactions from the statement of cash flows is consistent with the objective of a statement of cash flows because these items do not involve cash flows in the current period. Examples of non-cash transactions are:

  1. the acquisition of assets either by assuming directly related liabilities or by means of a finance lease;
  2. the acquisition of an entity by means of an equity issue; and
  3. the conversion of debt to equity

Components of cash and cash equivalents

7.20 An entity shall present the components of cash and cash equivalents and shall present a reconciliation of the amounts presented in the statement of cash flows to the equivalent items presented in the statement of financial position. However, an entity is not required to present this reconciliation if the amount of cash and cash equivalents presented in the statement of cash flows is identical to the amount similarly described in the statement of financial position.

Other disclosures

7.21 An entity shall disclose, together with a commentary by management, the amount of significant cash and cash equivalent balances held by the entity that are not available for use by the entity. Cash and cash equivalents held by an entity may not be available for use by the entity because of, among other reasons, foreign exchange controls or legal restrictions.

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Last Updated on 12/02/2020 by 75385885

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Something else -   SME Basic Financial Instruments