Category 1 Purchased Goods and Services – The best calculation guidance

Calculating Scope 3 Emissions GHG Category 1 Purchased Goods and Services

Category description – Category 1 Purchased Goods and Services includes all upstream (i.e., cradle-to-gate) emissions from the production of products purchased or acquired by the reporting company in the reporting year. Products include both goods (tangible products) and services (intangible products).

This guidance page for Category 1 Purchased Goods and Services serves as a companion to the Scope 3 Standard to offer companies practical guidance on calculating their scope 3 emissions. It provides information not contained in the Scope 3 Standard, such as methods for calculating GHG emissions for each of the 15 scope 3 categories, data sources, and worked examples.

Category 1 includes emissions from all purchased goods and services not otherwise included in the other categories of upstream scope 3 emissions (i.e., category 2 through category 8). Specific categories of upstream emissions are separately reported in category 2 through category 8 to enhance the transparency and consistency of scope 3 reports.

Emissions from the transportation of purchased products from a tier one (direct) supplier to the reporting company (in vehicles not owned or controlled by the reporting company) are accounted for in category 4 (Upstream transportation and distribution).

Companies may find it useful to differentiate between purchases of production-related products (e.g., materials, components, and parts) and non-production-related products (e.g., office furniture, office supplies, and IT support). This distinction may be aligned with procurement practices and therefore may be a useful way to more efficiently organize and collect data (see box 5.2 of the Scope 3 Standard).

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Category 11 Use of Sold Products – Best read

Category 11 Use of Sold Products

Category description – Category 11 Use of Sold Products includes emissions from the use of goods and services sold by the reporting company in the reporting year. A reporting company’s scope 3 emissions from use of sold products include the scope 1 and scope 2 emissions of end users. End users include both consumers and business customers that use final products.

The Scope 3 Standard divides emissions from the use of sold products into two types (see also table 11.1):

Category 11 Use of Sold Products

In category 11, companies are required to include direct use-phase emissions of sold products. Companies may also account for indirect use-phase emissions of sold products, and should do so when indirect use-phase emissions are expected to be significant. See table 11.1 for descriptions and examples of direct and indirect use-phase emissions.

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Category 10 Processing of Sold Products – One Better read

Category 10 Processing of Sold Products

Category description – Category 10 Processing of Sold Products includes emissions from processing of sold intermediate products by third parties (e.g., manufacturers) subsequent to sale by the reporting company. Intermediate products are products that require further processing, transformation, or inclusion in another product before use (see box 5.3 of the Scope 3 Standard), and therefore result in emissions from processing subsequent to sale by the reporting company and before use by the end consumer. Emissions from processing should be allocated to the intermediate product.

In certain cases, the eventual end use of sold intermediate products may be unknown. For example, a company that produces an intermediate product with many potential downstream applications, each of which has a different GHG emissions profile, may be unable to reasonably estimate the downstream emissions associated with these various end uses. See section 6.4 of the Scope 3 Standard for guidance in cases where downstream emissions associated with sold intermediate products are unknown.

See section 5.5 of the Scope 3 Standard for guidance on the applicability of category 10 to final products and intermediate products sold by the reporting company. A reporting company’s scope 3 emissions from processing of sold intermediate products include the scope 1 and scope 2 emissions of downstream value chain partners (e.g., manufacturers).

Calculating emissions from processing of sold products

Figure 10.1 gives a decision tree for selecting a calculation method for calculating scope 3 emissions from processing of sold products. Companies may use either of two methods:

decision tree for selecting a calculation method for calculating scope 3 emissions from processing of sold products

  • Site-specific method, which involves determining the amount of fuel and electricity used and the amount of waste generated from processing of sold intermediate products by the third party and applying the appropriate emission factors
  • Average-data method, which involves estimating emissions for processing of sold intermediate products based on average secondary data, such as average emissions per process or per product.

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Carbon dioxide equivalent defined – 1 Best read

Carbon dioxide equivalent defined

In study material each GHG described has a different global warming potential (GWP). The GWP of a given GHG indicates how much energy one unit of the GHG absorbs (i.e., the ability of that gas to trap heat in the atmosphere) compared to one unit of carbon dioxide, generally over a 100-year period.

The larger the GWP, the more that the GHG warms the earth compared to carbon dioxide over the stated time period. For example, PFCs and HFCs often absorb thousands of times more energy than carbon dioxide. The GWP of each GHG is published as a factor and used to translate GHGs, other than carbon dioxide, into carbon dioxide equivalent (C02e) units.

The GHG Protocol considers C02e to be the universal unit of measurement for GHGs since it expresses the GWP of each GHG in terms of the GWP of one unit of carbon dioxide. C02e and individual GHGs are often expressed in metric tons, which is the equivalent of 1,000 kilograms (or approximately 2,204 pounds).

The purpose of this measure is to enable a reporting entity, users and other stakeholders to compare the potency of the overall emissions from a reporting entity, both across entities and over time, even when the composition of the GHG emissions changes.

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Emissions over Time – The 1 Best read

Emissions over Time

The GHG Protocol is designed to enable reporting entities to track and report consistent and comparable emissions data over time. The first step to tracking emissions over time is the establishment of a base year. A base year is a benchmark against which subsequent emissions can be compared to create meaningful comparisons over time and may be used for setting GHG reduction targets.

To comply with the GHG Protocol principles of relevance and consistency, a reporting entity is required to establish and report a base year for its Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions. A base year is only required for Scope 3 emissions when Scope 3 performance is tracked or a Scope 3 reduction target has been set. That is the case whether the entity is reporting under the Corporate Standard or the Scope 3 Standard (see below How to apply the Corporate Standard, Scope 2 Guidance and Scope 3 Standard?).

How to apply the Corporate Standard, Scope 2 Guidance and Scope 3 Standard?

An entity reporting under the Corporate Standard is not required to disclose Scope 3 emissions. As a result, there are three options under the GHG Protocol for reporting Scope 3 emissions, as described in the following table, which is based on Table 1.1 in the Scope 3 Standard:

Option

Description

Applicable GHG criteria

1

A reporting entity reports its Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions and either (1) no Scope 3 emissions or (2) Scope 3 emissions from activities that are not aligned with any of the prescribed Scope 3 categories (the latter is very rare).

  • Corporate Standard

  • Scope 2 Guidance

2

A reporting entity reports its Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions and some, but not all, relevant and material Scope 3 GHG emissions in accordance with the Scope 3 calculation guidance but not with the Scope 3 Standard.

  • Corporate Standard

  • Scope 2 Guidance

  • Scope 3 Guidance

3

A reporting entity reports its Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions and all relevant and material categories of Scope 3 GHG emissions

Consider this!

The GHG Protocol encourages reporting entities to begin reporting GHG emissions information and improve the completeness and precision of that information over time.

While the GHG Protocol requires a company to establish and report a base year for its Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions, a reporting entity that recently started to report GHG emissions information and has not established an emissions reduction target may choose not to set a base year until the precision and completeness of their emissions inventory have improved.

In this situation, the reporting entity should disclose that a base year has not yet been established and the reason for not establishing a base year.

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Scope 1 emissions – Best read

Scope 1 emissions

Scope 1 emissions are emissions from sources owned or controlled by a reporting entity. For example, emissions from equipment, a vehicle or production processes that are owned or controlled by the reporting entity are considered Scope 1 emissions. These emissions include all direct emissions within the entity’s inventory boundary.

The combination of organizational and operational boundaries make up a reporting entity’s inventory boundary, which is also called the reporting boundary. Refer to Organizational boundaries for information on organizational boundaries and Operational boundaries for information on operational boundaries.

The GHG Protocol is designed to avoid double counting GHG emissions. That is, two or more reporting entities should never account for the same emissions as Scope 1 emissions. For example, emissions from the generation of heat, electricity or stream that is sold to another entity are not subtracted from Scope 1 emissions but are reported as Scope 2 emissions by the entity that purchases the related energy.

Theoretically, if every entity and individual throughout the world reported their GHG emissions using the same organizational boundary (e.g., equity share, financial control or operational control approach), the total of all Scope 1 emissions would equal the total GHGs emitted throughout the world.

Types of Scope 1 emissions

The GHG Protocol describes four types of Scope 1 emissions: stationary combustion, mobile combustion, process emissions and fugitive emissions. The type of emissions that are included in Scope 1 will vary based on the industry and business model of the reporting entity.

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Metrics in use for ESG Reporting- 1 Best and complete read

Metrics in use for ESG Reporting

Here is a list of Metrics in use for ESG Reporting that companies can use to start communicating on the ESG issues. The metrics have been divided into four categories:

Each category contains recommended disclosure metrics (both qualitative and quantitative) that have been marked either as minimum disclosures (relevant to all companies) or additional disclosures (that might not be relevant to all companies).

The selection of recommended disclosure metrics has been informed by relevant regulatory initiatives i.e. the CSRD and the ESRS as well as the Warsaw Stock Exchange corporate governance code. Moreover, to address increasing investors’ data needs, they have been also aligned with the mandatory PAI indicators for corporate investments required by the SFDR (see mapping in the Appendix – Relevance of the Guidelines to investors). References have been added below each section to other frameworks and resources that companies may also consider (Appendix – Alignment with EU regulations and other frameworks).

It should be emphasized that the Guidelines do not provide an exhaustive list of indicators and topics. Rather they aim to offer less advanced companies a minimum set of carefully selected disclosure metrics that will help them to prepare for the upcoming requirements stemming from the CSRD and the ESRS and better respond to investors’ ESG data needs. Companies in scope of the CSRD should use the ESRS to prepare their disclosures on material sustainability topics.

Metrics in use for ESG Reporting – General information

General information metrics provide essential context to understand the company business activities and value creation model, it’s material ESG impacts, risks and opportunities, and how it is managing them.

General information

What should be disclosed:

I

M 1

Business model

  • Short description of the company business model and value chain.
  • Whether the company is active in the following sectors: fossil fuel (coal, oil and gas), controversial weapons along with related revenues.

Companies may consider including the following characteristics when describing their business model: economic activities; products and services offered; markets of operation, company size (in terms of workforce, business locations, revenue, etc.)

I

M 2

Sustainability integration

  • Whether and how sustainability matters are integrated in the company strategy and business model.
  • Resilience of the company strategy and business model(s) to material sustainability risks.
  • Policies and actions adopted to manage material sustainability matters.
  • Targets related to management of sustainability matters.

I

M 3

Sustainability governance

  • Governance bodies roles and responsibilities with regard to sustainability matters (e.g. in relation to risk management, target setting, sustainability disclosure).
  • Whether governance bodies are informed about sustainability matters, and how they are addressed by administrative and/or management bodies.
  • Whether incentive schemes are offered to members of governance bodies that are linked to sustainability matters.

I

M 4

Material impacts, Risk and Opportunities

  • The processes used to identify material impacts, risks and opportunities.
  • Sustainability due diligence process.
  • Outcome of the materiality assessment (identified material impacts, risks and opportunities).
  • How material impacts, risks and opportunities interact with the company strategy and business model.

I

M 5

Stakeholder engagement

  • Description of the company main stakeholders, and how the company engages with them.
  • How the interests and views of stakeholders are taken into account by the undertaking’s strategy and business model.

Metrics in use for ESG Reporting- Environmental disclosures

Environmental metrics cover issues that arise from or impact the natural environment.

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2 Navigate the value chain under CSRD and ESRS – Complete comprehensive read

CSRD art 19(a)(3) and 29(a)(3)/ESRS 1.5 Value chain require that reported information relates to a company’s own operations and its upstream and downstream Value Chain (VC), including its products and services, its business relationships and its supply chain.

What is the difference between value chain and supply chain?
In short, the VC includes the supply chain. The supply chain is the actors in the VC upstream from the reporting entity. However, VC also includes downstream entities along with the supply chain.

The supply chain provides products or services that are used in the development of the undertaking’s products or services. Depending on the position in the VC, an undertaking’s supply chain can be part of the downstream VC of another undertaking.

In some industries, upstream or downstream refers to specific points in the chain rather than with reference to the reporting undertaking’s position in the chain.

Navigating the value chain under CSRD and ESRS
How to identify the reporting boundaries?

Reporting boundaries for sustainability reporting

The reporting boundaries would be based on the financial statements (For example, when reporting for a group where the parent company prepares consolidated financial statements, the consolidated financial and sustainability statements will be prepared for the parent and its subsidiaries.) –but expanded to cover material impacts, risks and opportunities related to the upstream and downstream value chain.

Associates or joint ventures –accounted for under the equity method or proportionally consolidated –may form part of the upstream or downstream value chain, if they are to be considered as business partners of the reporting company.

When determining impact metrics, the data of associates or joint ventures are not limited to the equity share held but should be taken into account on the basis of the impacts that are directly linked to the company’s products and services through its business relationship.

Most of the metrics in the sector-agnostic standards are limited to the own operations (no value chain). If information on the value chain cannot be obtained, in the first three years of applicable the draft ESRSs would allow transitional measures.

Disclosures – General requirements

The general requirements relating to all disclosures on VC can be found in ESRS 1 General requirements:

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The International Sustainability Disclosure Standards – IFRS S1 and IFRS S2 – Best read

The International Sustainability Disclosure Standards – IFRS S1 and IFRS S2

On 26 June 2023 the International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB) released its first two International Sustainability Disclosure Standards (IFRS SDS or the Standards) that become effective for periods beginning on or after 1 January 2024. Together they mark the start of a new era of requiring companies to make sustainability-related disclosures.

The ISSB was launched by the IFRS Foundation at COP26 with the aim of improving the consistency and quality of sustainability reporting across the globe, by matching the importance of sustainability reporting with the current regulations around financial reporting. To reinforce this message, the ISSB sits alongside the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and is overseen by the trustees of the IFRS Foundation and the Monitoring board.

The International Sustainability Disclosure Standards – IFRS S1 and IFRS S2

The ISSB brings together the Climate Disclosure Standards Board (CDSB) and the Value Reporting Foundation (VRF), the name behind the Integrated Reporting Framework and the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) Standards.

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