Present obligation as a result of a past obligating event—the obligating event is the sale of the product, which gives rise to a constructive obligation because the conduct of the store has created a valid expectation on the part of its customers that the store will refund purchases.
An outflow of resources embodying economic benefits in settlement—probable that a proportion of goods will be returned for refund.
Conclusion—the entity recognises a provision for the best estimate of the amount required to settle the refunds.
All of the entities in the examples have 31 December as their reporting date. In all cases, it is assumed that a reliable estimate can be made of any outflows expected. In some examples the circumstances described may have resulted in impairment of the assets; this aspect is not dealt with in the examples. References to ‘best estimate’ are to the present value amount, when the effect of the time value of money is material.