Step 5 Recognise the revenue when the entity satisfies each performance obligation the the end of the process in revenue recognition as introduced by IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers. Step 5 Recognise the revenue
IFRS 15 The revenue recognition standard provides a single comprehensive standard that applies to nearly all industries and has changed revenue recognition quite significant. Step 5 Recognise the revenue
IFRS 15 introduced a five step process for recognising revenue, as follows:
- Identify the contract with the customer
- Identify the performance obligations in the contract
- Determine the transaction price for the contract
- Allocate the transaction price to each specific performance obligation
- Recognise the revenue when the entity satisfies each performance obligation
Step 4 Revenue recognition
In step five, after successfully navigating steps one through four, it is time to recognise revenue. This happens as each performance obligation is met by transferring a promised good or service to a customer. The transfer is complete when a customer obtains control of an asset or a service. Step 5 Recognise the revenue
Like many of the other steps, there are judgements to be made. One critical judgement is whether the performance obligation is satisfied at a point in time (i.e. the promised good or service is transferred to the customer all at once) [IFRS 15 33] or if it is satisfied over time (i.e. the good or service is transferred to the customer as performance occurs) [IFRS 15 35]. It’s important to note that the determination about when a performance obligation is satisfied happens separately for each performance obligation in a contract.
Another important judgement is determining when a customer obtains control of the good or service. This determines the point at which the performance obligation is satisfied. The standard defines control as the ability to direct the use of, and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from the good or service in a reasonable way. Some examples include:
- Using the asset to produce goods or provide services Step 5 Recognise the revenue
- Consuming it to improve an asset or decrease costs Step 5 Recognise the revenue
- Selling or exchanging the asset for other valuable goods, services, or rights Step 5 Recognise the revenue
- Transferring the asset to settle a liability Step 5 Recognise the revenue
- Licensing or leasing the asset to others Step 5 Recognise the revenue
- Pledging the asset as a security interest Step 5 Recognise the revenue
- Holding the asset so that others cannot use it Step 5 Recognise the revenue
Note that determining control (IFRS 15 33) as it applies in the revenue recognition standard is not always the same as the concept of control in other accounting standards, such as IFRS 10 6 – 7 – Consolidated financial statements or IFRS 9 3.2.9 – Transfers of financial assets. It is important to understand control in the context of IFRS 15 – Revenue from contracts with customers.
Again, performance obligations can be satisfied, and revenue recognised, over time or at a point in time. As covered in step 2, one of the following criteria has to be met to recognise revenue over time:
- The customer receives and consumes the benefits of the goods or services as they are provided by the entity (services like cleaning, lawn care, certain accounting and legal services)
- The goods or services create or enhance an asset that the customer controls as the asset is created or enhanced (this would be common for contractors who may renovate a home owned by the customer,or build a structure on land owned by the customer)
- The asset created does not have an alternative use to the entity and the entity has an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date (some examples are custom design services,or construction of a custom product to customer specifications). An enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date should include the right to costs incurred to date and a reasonable profit margin.
When recognising revenue over time, the objective is to do so in a pattern commensurate with the transfer of control to the customer. IFRS 15 41 allows the use of output or input models to measure progress towards completion.
Output methods recognise revenue based on the value transferred to the customer. Some examples of output methods are surveys of performance to date, appraisals of results achieved, milestones completed, time elapsed, and units produced. Many different output methods are acceptable provided they represent performance.
Input methods recognise revenue based on the effort to satisfy the performance obligations. Examples of input methods are resources consumed, labour hours expended, and machine hours used. Any wasted costs or costs requisitioned to a job but not used should not be included in estimating progress towards completion.
Practical expedient Recognition revenue over time
If an entity has a right to consideration from a customer in an amount that corresponds directly with the value to the customer of the entity’s performance completed to date (for example, a service contract in which an entity bills a fixed amount for each hour of service provided), the entity may recognise revenue in the amount to which the entity has a right to invoice (IFRS 15.B16).
In July 2015, the TRG (cf. question 98) clarified that this practical expedient can be also applied in the case of a long-term contract to provide goods or services in which the price per unit changes over the duration of the contract (for example, an IT contract with rates that decrease as the entity passes on the benefits of the learning curve to the customer, or an electricity contract where the annual rate reflects the market price of electricity).
An entity must nevertheless exercise judgement, taking account of the facts and circumstances, to assess whether use of this practical expedient to measure progress is possible. In particular, it may be difficult to decide whether the practical expedient can be applied in cases of advance payments, or significant retrospective price reductions.
In terms of disclosures, and by way of simplification (in addition to the expedient presented above), an entity need not provide the information required by IFRS 15 about the transaction price allocated to unsatisfied performance obligations (i.e. the “backlog” under IFRS 15) if progress towards these performance obligations is measured using the practical expedient set out above.
Under IFRS 15 recognising revenue over time is not a policy choice as the percentage of completion under old IFRSs. It is required for situations that meet the criteria noted above. If the criteria are not met then revenue is recognised at the point in time that control passes to the customer.
Step 5 Recognise the revenue
Annualreporting provides financial reporting narratives using IFRS keywords and terminology for free to students and others interested in financial reporting. The information provided on this website is for general information and educational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for professional advice. Use at your own risk. Annualreporting is an independent website and it is not affiliated with, endorsed by, or in any other way associated with the IFRS Foundation. For official information concerning IFRS Standards, visit IFRS.org or the local representative in your jurisdiction.