IAS 8 Best summary policies estimates and errors

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IAS 8 Best summary policies estimates and errors comprises a high level summary of the three items in this standard:

  1. Accounting policies,
  2. Accounting Estimates
  3. Errors

1. Accounting policies

Definition:

Accounting policies are the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements.

Selection and application of accounting policies:

  • If a standard or interpretation deals with a transaction, use that standard or interpretation
  • If no standard or interpretation deals with a transaction, judgment should be applied. The following sources should be referred to, to make the judgement:
    • Requirements and guidance in other standards/interpretations dealing with similar issues
    • Definitions, recognition criteria in the framework
    • May use other GAAP
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Consolidated financial statements

IFRS 10 Definition of consolidated financial statements

The financial statements of a group in which the assets, liabilities, equity, income, expenses and cash flows of the parent and its subsidiaries are presented as those of a single economic entity.

ParentAn entity that controls one or more entities.

The other types of financial statements are unconsolidated financial statements (or company accounts) and combined financial statements.

Single economic entity concept

The concept of a single economic entity is illustrated in the example below:

Example – Single economic entity concept

A subsidiary buys an asset from a third party for CU 100. It subsequently sells the asset on to its parent for CU 130. The subsidiary records a profit

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Retrospective or prospective application

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Retrospective or prospective application

Retrospective or prospective application

 

Retrospective application – Applying a new accounting policy to transactions, other events, and conditions as if that policy had always been applied (change in accounting policy) (IAS 8 5).

OR

Correcting the recognition, measurement and disclosure of amounts of elements of financial statements as if a prior period error had never occurred.

Prospective application of a change in accounting policy and of recognising the effect of a change in an accounting estimate, respectively, are:

  1. Applying the new accounting policy to transactions, other events and conditions occurring after the date as at which the policy is changed; and
  2. Recognising the effect of the change in the accounting
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General model of measurement of insurance contracts

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General model of measurement of insurance contracts – Insurance contracts may be highly complex bundles of interdependent rights and obligations and combine features of a financial instrument and features of a service contract. As a result, insurance contracts can provide their issuers with different sources of income – e.g. underwriting profit, fees from asset management services and financial income from spread business (when insurers earn a margin on invested assets) – often all within the same contract. [IFRS 17 IN5, IFRS 17 BC18]

The general measurement model introduced by IFRS 17 provides a comprehensive and coherent framework that provides information reflecting the many different features of insurance contracts and the ways in which the issuers of insurance … Read more