IFRS 2 Fair value of equity instruments granted

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IFRS 2 Fair value of equity instruments granted – Share-based payment transactions with employees are measured with reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted (IFRS 2.11).

The fair value of a equity instrument granted is determined as follows (IFRS 2.16-17):

  • If market prices are available for the actual equity instruments granted – i.e. shares or share options with the same terms and conditions – then the estimate of fair value is based on these market prices. IFRS 2 Fair value of equity instruments granted
  • If market prices are not available for the equity instruments granted, then the fair value of equity instruments granted is estimated using a valuation technique.

IFRS … Read more

Fair value

IAS 32, IAS 36, IFRS 1, IFRS 9, IFRS 13 Definition Fair value: 

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.

IFRS 16 Definition Fair value: For the purpose of applying the lessor accounting requirements in IFRS 16 Leases, the amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction.

IFRS 2 Definition Fair value:

The amount for which an asset could be exchanged, a liability settled, or an equity instrument granted could be exchanged, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction.

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Types of accounting errors

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Types of accounting errors come in the form of different kinds of errors. Some errors are discovered in the period in which they are made and are easily adjusted. Others may not be discovered currently and are incorrectly reflected in the financial statements until discovered. Some errors are never discovered; however, the effects of these errors may be counterbalanced in subsequent periods, and after this takes place, account balances are again accurately stated. Errors may be classified as follows:

  1. Errors discovered currently in the course of normal accounting procedures. Examples of this type of error are clerical errors, such as an addition error, posting to the wrong account) misstating an account, or omitting an account from
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Examples of adjustments of errors

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Examples of adjustments of errors – When errors affecting income are discovered, careful analysis is necessary to determine the required action to correct the account balances. As indicated, most errors will be caught and adjusted prior to closing the books. The few material errors not detected until subsequent periods and those that have not already been counterbalanced must be treated as prior-period adjustments. See also ‘Types of errors‘.

The following sections describe and illustrate the procedures to be applied when error adjustments require prior-period adjustments. It is assumed that each of the errors is material. Errors that are discovered usually affect the income tax liability for a prior period. Amended tax returns are usually prepared Read more

Contractual service margin

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Contractual service margin – The fourth element of the building blocks in the general model is the contractual service margin (the CSM). This is a component of the asset or liability for the group of insurance contracts that represents the unearned profit the entity will recognise as it provides services in the future.

Here is how the contractual service margin fits into the general model of measurement of insurance contracts. The general model is based on the following estimation parameters:

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How to work with APMs

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How to work with APMs – Alternative performance measures (APM) have a twofold use; directors monitor the financial and economic performance through APMs, and reporting entities heavily rely on APMs to communicate results to their financial statement users. APMs should normally be consistent with the performance indicators used by directors. However, regulatory restrictions or confidentiality issues may prevent directors from disclosing all of the types of performance indicators used. Furthermore, complexity in calculation or use of non-financial information could also prevent directors from publicly disclosing certain types of APMs.

How to work with Alternative performance measures How to work with APMs

A structured way to organize an entity’s APM process may involve the following four steps:

  1. Identify the relevant APMs for
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Challenges in financial reporting

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Challenges in financial reporting – There are specific problems that affect the different bases of measurement available to financial reporting: historical cost, value to the business, fair value, realisable value and value in use. How the different bases work will be considered separately, but it will be helpful to look first at some issues that generally beset financial reporting measurement.

When applied to financial reporting the term measurement can give a misleading impression of certainty and objectivity. In daily life, measurements are typically made of the physical characteristics of physical objects – such as height, weight, temperature and so on. If accurate measurement tools are employed, information of this sort is objective and uncontroversial. … Read more

Financial reporting in change

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Financial reporting in change – Many different bodies of practices are used around the world for external financial reporting and these include different approaches to measurement.

  1. Different jurisdictions have developed their own financial reporting requirements, influenced by differences in the uses made of financial reporting information and in business and regulatory environments.
  2. Even within a single jurisdiction, different approaches are sometimes adopted for different entities in order to reflect variations in size, ownership and governance.
  3. Businesses undertake different types of transaction or hold different types of asset or liability. Practices develop that reflect the needs and experiences of particular types of business.

These bodies of practices are rarely systematic; they have evolved over time as collections of Read more

Cash Flow Risk Management

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Cash Flow Risk Management The risk that companies must identify and manage is their cash flow risk, meaning uncertainty about their future cash flows. Finance theory is, for the most part, silent about how much cash flow risk a company should take on. Company Cash Flow Risk Management

In practice, however, managers need to be aware that calculating expected cash flows can obscure material risks capable of jeopardizing their business when they are deciding how much cash flow risk to accept. They also need to manage any risks affecting cash flows that investors are unable to mitigate for themselves. Company Cash Flow Risk Management

Deciding how much cash flow risk to take on what should companies look … Read more

What is a correct discount rate in pension calculations?

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What is a correct discount rate in pension calculations – Some background information on the discussion on pension plans and discount rates. Choosing the correct discount rate in calculation pension liabilities is not an easy task and a task that brings public responsibility.

Interest rates in the European area are close to zero because the ECB holds its benchmark refinancing rate at zero since March 2016, see table below:

What is a correct discount rate in pension calculations

Low-interest rates play a critical role in calculating pension plan obligations. Specifically, the interest rates on high-quality corporate bonds are used to determine the plan’s expected risk-free return in the future – a metric known as the “discount rate”. If the discount rate decreases, a pension plan needs Read more