# Calculating Scope 3 Emissions GHG Category 2 Capital Goods

Category description – Category 2 Capital Goods includes all upstream (i.e., cradle-to-gate) emissions from the production of capital goods purchased or acquired by the reporting company in the reporting year. Emissions from the use of capital goods by the reporting company are accounted for in either scope 1 (e.g., for fuel use) or scope 2 (e.g., for electricity use), rather than in scope 3.

This guidance page for Category 2 Capital Goods serves as a companion to the Scope 3 Standard to offer companies practical guidance on calculating their scope 3 emissions. It provides information not contained in the Scope 3 Standard, such as methods for calculating GHG emissions for each of the 15 scope 3 categories, data sources, and worked examples.

### Overview – Category 2 Capital Goods

Category 2 Capital Goods refer to a specific classification within capital goods, a broad category encompassing durable assets used by businesses to produce goods or services. These goods are essential for the operation and expansion of a business, serving as long-term investments rather than short-term expenses. Category 2 Capital Goods typically include machinery, equipment, vehicles, and other tangible assets that facilitate production processes but have a shorter lifespan compared to Category 1 Capital Goods.

Here’s an overview of Category 2 Capital Goods:

### Definition and Classification:

1. Capital Goods: Capital goods are tangible assets used by businesses to produce goods or services. They are distinguished from consumable goods by their longevity and role in the production process.
2. Category 2 Classification: Capital goods are often categorized based on their lifespan, with Category 2 referring to assets that have a medium-term lifespan compared to Category 1, which includes long-term assets like buildings and land.

### Characteristics:

1. Durability: Category 2 Capital Goods are durable assets designed to withstand regular use over an extended period but typically have a shorter lifespan compared to Category 1 assets.
2. Utility in Production: These goods are essential for the production process, directly contributing to the creation of goods or services by a business.
3. Depreciation: Like all capital assets, Category 2 Capital Goods undergo depreciation, losing value over time due to wear and tear, technological obsolescence, or market fluctuations.
4. Investment: They represent significant investments for businesses, requiring substantial financial outlay upfront but offering long-term returns through increased productivity and efficiency.

### Examples:

1. Machinery and Equipment: This includes manufacturing machinery, assembly line equipment, packaging machines, and other industrial tools necessary for production processes.
2. Vehicles: Trucks, vans, forklifts, and other vehicles used for transporting raw materials, finished goods, or employees within the production facility or to external locations.
3. Tools and Instruments: Hand tools, power tools, precision instruments, and other equipment used by workers to perform tasks related to production, maintenance, or quality control.
4. Technology and Software: Computer systems, software applications, and technological infrastructure used to automate processes, manage operations, or analyze data for decision-making purposes.

### Importance:

1. Enhanced Productivity: Category 2 Capital Goods play a crucial role in enhancing productivity and efficiency within a business, allowing for faster production cycles and higher output levels.
2. Competitive Advantage: Investing in modern, efficient capital goods can provide a competitive edge by reducing costs, improving quality, and enabling innovation in products or processes.
3. Capacity Expansion: These assets enable businesses to expand their production capacity, meet growing demand, or enter new markets by investing in additional machinery, equipment, or technology.
4. Risk Management: Upgrading or replacing Category 2 Capital Goods can mitigate risks associated with equipment breakdowns, technological obsolescence, or changes in market demand.

### Considerations:

1. Cost-Benefit Analysis: Businesses must conduct thorough cost-benefit analyses before investing in Category 2 Capital Goods to ensure that the benefits in terms of increased productivity or cost savings outweigh the initial investment and ongoing operational costs.
2. Maintenance and Upkeep: Proper maintenance and timely upgrades are essential to prolong the lifespan and optimize the performance of Category 2 Capital Goods, reducing the risk of downtime and costly repairs.
3. Technological Advancements: Rapid advancements in technology may render certain capital goods obsolete sooner than expected, necessitating careful consideration of the asset’s lifespan and future market trends.
4. Regulatory Compliance: Businesses must comply with regulations and standards governing the use of capital goods, particularly regarding safety, environmental impact, and industry-specific requirements.

### Conclusion:

Category 2 Capital Goods form a vital component of business investment, facilitating production processes, enhancing productivity, and driving economic growth. By understanding their characteristics, importance, and considerations, businesses can make informed decisions regarding the acquisition, maintenance, and utilization of these essential assets to achieve long-term success and competitiveness in the marketplace.

## EBITDA – Earnings before interest taxes depreciation and amortisation

– is a measure of a company’s overall financial performance and is used as an alternative to simple earnings or net income in some circumstances. Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortisation, however, can be misleading because it strips out the cost of capital investments like property, plant, and equipment.

This metric also excludes expenses associated with debt by adding back interest expense and taxes to earnings. Nonetheless, it is a more precise measure of corporate performance since it is able to show earnings before the influence of accounting and financial deductions.

Simply put, Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortisation is a measure of profitability. While there is no legal requirement for companies to disclose their EBITDA (here also written as EBIT-DA), according to the U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (US GAAP) or International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), it can be worked out and reported using information found in a company’s financial statements.

The earnings, tax, and interest figures are found on the income statement, while the depreciation and amortisation figures are normally found in the notes to operating profit or on the cash flow statement. The usual shortcut to calculate EBITDA is to start with operating profit, also called earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) and then add back depreciation and amortisation.

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/EBITDA

## Cloud based software

Historically, companies acquiring IT and other infrastructure have only faced one decision – buy or lease? From a financial perspective, the choice was simple: lease, because it didn’t require up-front capital and potentially allowed assets to be kept off balance sheet under the old accounting rules. A buy decision meant an up-front investment of capital and a depreciating asset on the balance sheet.

However, with the evolution of technology, a new choice has emerged – cloud services, which can be obtained without buying or leasing. Instead of expensive data centres and IT software licenses, users can choose to simply have a provider host all of their infrastructure and services. No upfront investment is required, just a simple monthly series of payments that can be scaled up, scaled back or cancelled as needed. But what does all of this mean for income statements – and your company’s balance sheet?

### Cloud accounting – a different business model

Historically, any company purchasing its IT infrastructure would capitalise the costs and amortise them over time. Under the new leases standard, a company using a lease or hire purchase arrangement to access IT infrastructure would end up with a similar capitalised asset and amortisation charge over time. However, the cloud alternative represents a fundamentally different business model, one where, unlike the legacy purchase model, a user of cloud services does not ever own the underlying assets.

While this isn’t yet another article about the leases standard, it’s useful to step through some of the sensitivities in financial metrics under the leasing standard. While cloud services are likely to result in a differing accounting treatment, the all too familiar concerns in lease accounting are still relevant.

## What is the disclosure definition under IFRS?

Disclosure definition – one of the best ways to explain the need for disclosures is provided in IAS 1.119management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in reported financial performance and financial position. Each entity considers the nature of its operations and the policies that the users of its financial statements would expect to be disclosed for that type of entity.

### Let us point to some IFRS disclosure particularities

In IAS 1 Presentaion of Financial Statements the overall disclosure requirements are provided. Other IAS/IFRSs set out the recognition, measurement and disclosure requirements for specific transactions and other events (IAS 1.3).

An entity cannot rectify inappropriate accounting policies either by disclosure of the accounting policies used or by notes or explanatory material (IAS 1.18).

Some IAS/IFRSs specify information that is required to be included in the financial statements, which include the notes. An entity need not provide a specific disclosure required by a IFRS if the information resulting from that disclosure is not material. This is the case even if the IFRS contains a list of specific requirements or describes them as minimum requirements.

An entity shall also consider whether to provide additional disclosures when compliance with the specific requirements in IFRS is insufficient to enable users of financial statements to understand the impact of particular transactions, other events and conditions on the entity’s financial position and financial performance (IAS 1.31).

### Minimum comparative information

In some cases, narrative information provided in the financial statements for the preceding period(s) continues to be relevant in the current period. For example, an entity discloses in the current period details of a legal dispute, the outcome of which was uncertain at the end of the preceding period and is yet to be resolved. Users may benefit from the disclosure of information that the uncertainty existed at the end of the preceding period and from the disclosure of information about the steps that have been taken during the period to resolve the uncertainty (IAS 1.38B).

## Sales outside ordinary activities

Certain aspects of IFRS 15 apply to the sale or transfer of non-financial assets – e.g. intangible assets and property, plant and equipment – that are not an output of the entity’s ordinary activities.

Under IFRS 15, the guidance on measurement and derecognition applies to the transfer of a non-financial asset that is not an output of the entity’s ordinary activities, including:

When an entity sells or transfers a non-financial asset that is not an output of its ordinary activities, it derecognises the asset when control transfers to the recipient, using the guidance on transfer of control in the respective standard IAS 16, IAS 38 or IAS 40 (see Transfer of control).

The resulting gain or loss is the difference between the transaction price measured under IFRS 15 (using the guidance in Step 3 of the model) and the asset’s carrying amount. In determining the transaction price (and any subsequent changes to the transaction price), an entity considers the guidance on measuring variable consideration – including the constraint, the existence of a significant financing component, non-cash consideration and consideration payable to a customer (see Step 3 – Determine the transaction price).

The resulting gain or loss is not presented as revenue. Likewise, any subsequent adjustments to the gain or loss – e.g. as a result of changes in the measurement of variable consideration – are not presented as revenue.

## Sale-and-leaseback of real estate

New guidance on ‘failed sales’ means that some sale-and-leaseback transactions are accounted for as pure financing transactions by both landlords and tenants.

In a sale-and-leaseback transaction, a company (the seller-tenant) transfers an underlying asset to another company (the buyer-landlord) and leases that asset back from the buyer-landlord. (IFRS 16.98–103)

### Sale-and-leaseback

To determine how to account for a sale-and-leaseback transaction, a company first considers whether the initial transfer of the underlying asset from the seller-tenant to the buyer-landlord is a sale. The company applies IFRS 15 to determine whether a sale has taken place. This assessment determines the accounting by both the buyer-landlord and the seller-tenant.

Transfer to buyer-landlord is a sale

* Adjustments are required if the sale is not at fair value or the lease payments are off-market. A company is not required to assess both, however – only whichever one is more ‘readily determinable’.

Transfer to buyer-landlord is not a sale

#### Seller-tenant

Transfer to buyer-landlord is a sale

* Adjustments are required if the sale is not at fair value or the lease payments are off-market. A company is not required to assess both, however – only whichever one is more ‘readily determinable’.

Transfer to buyer-landlord is not a sale

## Measurement of investment property

### Introduction

Control of real estate can be obtained through:

• direct acquisition of real estate;
• construction of real estate; or
• leasing of real estate, under either operating or finance leases.

Entities normally perform strategic planning before the acquisition, construction or leasing, to assess the feasibility of the project.

Entities might incur costs attributable to the acquisition, construction or leasing of real estate, during this first step of the cycle. Entities might also enter into financing arrangements to secure the liquidity required for the acquisition and construction of real estate.

The direct acquisition of investment property is presented here and the lease of investment property is presented here (Landlord lease accounting).

In this narrative the investment properties under construction (i.e. initial recognition of the development of real estate) and subsequent measurement of investment properties are handled.

## Critical estimates judgements and errors

The preparation of financial statements requires the use of accounting estimates which, by definition, will seldom equal the actual results. Management also needs to exercise judgement in applying the group’s accounting policies. (IAS 1.122, IAS 1.125)

This note provides an overview of the areas that involved a higher degree of judgement or complexity, and of items which are more likely to be materially adjusted due to estimates and assumptions turning out to be wrong. Detailed information about each of these estimates and judgements is included in other notes together with information about the basis of calculation for each affected line item in the financial statements.

In addition, this note also explains where there have been actual adjustments this year as a result of an error and of changes to previous estimates.

[Entities with operations in the UK, or that are doing a significant amount of business with the UK, should consider the extent to which additional disclosures are necessary to explain the impact of Brexit-related risks on their financial statements arising from the UK’s Brexit decision, see below.]

### (a) Significant estimates and judgements

The areas involving significant estimates or judgements are disclosed in other areas of the notes to facilitate a complete overview of each IFRS subject/Note disclosure. These significant estimates or judgements are:

Estimates and judgements are continually evaluated. They are based on historical experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that may have a financial impact on the entity and that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances.

## Example accounting policies

Get the requirements for properly disclosing the accounting policies to provide the users of your financial statements with useful financial data, in the common language prescribed in the world’s most widely used standards for financial reporting, the IFRS Standards. First there is a section providing guidance on what the requirements are, followed by a comprehensive example, easy to tailor to the specific needs of your company.

### Example accounting policies guidance

#### Whether to disclose an accounting policy

1. In deciding whether a particular accounting policy should be disclosed, management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in the reported financial performance and financial position. Disclosure of particular accounting policies is especially useful to users where those policies are selected from alternatives allowed in IFRS. [IAS 1.119]

2. Some IFRSs specifically require disclosure of particular accounting policies, including choices made by management between different policies they allow. For example, IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment requires disclosure of the measurement bases used for classes of property, plant and equipment and IFRS 3 Business Combinations requires disclosure of the measurement basis used for non-controlling interest acquired during the period.

3. In this guidance, policies are disclosed that are specific to the entity and relevant for an understanding of individual line items in the financial statements, together with the notes for those line items. Other, more general policies are disclosed in the note 25 in the example below. Where permitted by local requirements, entities could consider moving these non-entity-specific policies into an Appendix.

#### Change in accounting policy – new and revised accounting standards

4. Where an entity has changed any of its accounting policies, either as a result of a new or revised accounting standard or voluntarily, it must explain the change in its notes. Additional disclosures are required where a policy is changed retrospectively, see note 26 for further information. [IAS 8.28]

5. New or revised accounting standards and interpretations only need to be disclosed if they resulted in a change in accounting policy which had an impact in the current year or could impact on future periods. There is no need to disclose pronouncements that did not have any impact on the entity’s accounting policies and amounts recognised in the financial statements. [IAS 8.28]

6. For the purpose of this edition, it is assumed that RePort Co. PLC did not have to make any changes to its accounting policies, as it is not affected by the interest rate benchmark reforms, and the other amendments summarised in Appendix D are only clarifications that did not require any changes. However, this assumption will not necessarily apply to all entities. Where there has been a change in policy, this will need to be explained, see note 26 for further information.

## Disclosure equity

Get the requirements for properly disclosing equity as the owners’ balance of assets less liabilities to provide the users of your financial statements with useful financial data, in the common language prescribed in the world’s most widely used standards for financial reporting, the IFRS Standards.

First there is a section providing guidance on what the requirements are, followed by a comprehensive example, easy to tailor to the specific needs of your company.

### Disclosure equity guidance

IAS 1 requires disclosure of the par RePort of shares (if any), but does not prescribe a particular form of presentation for the share premium. RePorting Co. is disclosing the share premium in the notes. However, local company laws may have specific rules. For example, they may require separate presentation in the balance sheet. [IAS 1.79(a)]

#### Treasury shares

IAS 32 states that treasury shares must be deducted from equity and that no gain or loss shall be recognised on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of such shares. However, the standard does not specify where in equity the treasury shares should be presented. RePorting Co. has elected to present the shares in ‘other equity’, but they may also be disclosed as a separate line item in the balance sheet, deducted from retained earnings or presented in a specific reserve. Depending on local company law, the company may have the right to resell the treasury shares. [IAS 32.33]

Other reserves

An entity shall present, either in the statement of changes in equity or in the notes, for each accumulated balance of each class of other comprehensive income a reconciliation between the carrying amount at the beginning and the end of the period, separately disclosing each item of other comprehensive income and transactions with owners. See also commentary paragraphs 2 and 3 to the statement of changes in equity. [IAS 1.106(d)]