IAS 16 Generation assets for Power and Utilities

Generation assets for Power and Utilities

– are often large and complex installations. They are expensive to construct, tend to be exposed to harsh operating conditions and require periodic replacement or repair. This environment leads to specific accounting issues.

1 Fixed assets and components

IFRS has a specific requirement for ‘component’ depreciation, as described in IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment. Each significant part of an item of property, plant and equipment is depreciated separately. Significant parts of an asset that have similar useful lives and patterns of consumption can be grouped together. This requirement can create complications for utility entities, because many assets include components with a shorter useful life than the asset as a whole.

Identifying components of an asset

Generation assets might comprise a significant number of components, many of which will have differing useful lives. The significant components of these types of assets must be separately identified. This can be a complex process, particularly on transition to IFRS, because the detailed record-keeping needed for componentisation might not have been required in order to comply with national generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). This can particularly be an issue for older power plants. However, some regulators require detailed asset records, which can be useful for IFRS component identification purposes.

An entity might look to its operating data if the necessary information for components is not readily identified by the accounting records. Some components can be identified by considering the routine shutdown or overhaul schedules for power stations and the associated replacement and maintenance routines. Consideration should also be given to those components that are prone to technological obsolescence, corrosion or wear and tear that is more severe than that of the other portions of the larger asset.

First-time IFRS adopters can benefit from an exemption under IFRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards. This exemption allows entities to use a value that is not depreciated cost in accordance with IAS 16, and IAS 23 Borrowing Costs as deemed cost on transition to IFRS. It is not necessary to apply the exemption to all assets or to a group of assets.

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Narrative reporting the right way

Narrative reporting

– whether in the form of an Operating and Financial Review (OFR), Management Discussion and Analysis (MD&A), a Business Review or other management commentary – is vital to corporate transparency. Key performance indicators (KPIs), both financial and non-financial, are an important component of the information needed to explain a company’s progress towards its stated goals, for all of these types of narrative reporting.

But despite this fact, KPIs are not well understood. What makes a performance indicator “key”? What type of information should be provided for each indicator? And how can it best be presented to provide effective narrative business reporting?

Setting the stage – two quotes

Although narrative reporting requirements remain fluid, reporting on KPIs is here to stay. I welcome any publication as a valuable contribution to helping companies choose which KPIs to report and what information will provide investors with a real understanding of corporate performance. Using management’s own measures of success really helps deepen investors’ understanding of progress and movement in business. Whether contextual, financial or non-financial, these data points make the trends in the business transparent and help keep management accountable. The illustrations of good practice reporting on KPIs shown here bring alive what is required in a practical and effective way.

KPIs – a critical component

Regulatory environment

The specific requirements for narrative reporting have been a point of debate for several years now. However one certainty remains: the requirement to report financial and non-financial key performance indicators.

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PPE Components and parts

PPE Components and parts is about what to include in cost of letting a constructor build a certain technological type of asset/machinery. A complex asset is comprising of many major and small parts. Its cost excluding directly attributable costs is CU 1,000,000. One of its part costs CU 120,000 and another CU 180,000. All other parts cost less than CU 100,000.

Estimated useful life of the main asset and two parts are as follows: – Main Asset 30 years; Part1 10 years; Part 2 30 years. PPE – Components and parts

In this case, the company shall classify these parts in the following manner: PPE Components and partsPPE Components and parts

  • Complex asset: cost CU 1,000,000 – Useful life 30 Years, residual value

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Hold to collect and sell – How 2 best account it in IFRS 9 classification of financial assets

Under the 'hold to collect and sell’ business model, the objective is to both collect the contractual cash flows and sell the financial asset for cash

Concise information

Concise information - Other things being equal, where information is concerned, the shorter the better..... or better, it is a balancing act, full of dilemma's

Protective rights

Protective rights relate to fundamental changes to the activities of an investee or apply in exceptional circumstances. However, not all rights that apply in exceptional circumstances or are contingent on events are protective. Because protective rights are designed to protect the interests of their holder without giving that party power over the investee to which those rights relate, an investor that holds only protective rights cannot have power or prevent another party from having power over an investee.

Property plant and equipment Example

Property plant and equipment Example – Accounting policy example

Property plant and equipment is stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. The initial cost of an asset comprises its purchase price or construction cost, any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset into the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management, the initial estimate of any decommissioning obligation, if any, and, for assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use, directly attributable finance costs.

The purchase price or construction cost is the aggregate amount paid and the fair value of any other consideration given to acquire the … Read more

Impairment Example

Impairment Example – Accounting exampleReversal of impairment losses

Impairment of property, plant and equipment, intangible assets, and goodwill

The group assesses assets or groups of assets, called cash-generating units (CGUs), for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or CGU may not be recoverable; for example, changes in the group’s business plans, changes in the group’s assumptions about commodity prices, low plant utilization, evidence of physical damage or, for oil and gas assets, significant downward revisions of estimated reserves or increases in estimated future development expenditure or decommissioning costs. If any such indication of impairment exists, the group makes an estimate of the asset’s or CGU’s recoverable amount. Individual assets are grouped into CGUs … Read more