Disclosure financial assets and liabilities

Disclosure financial assets and liabilities

– provides a narrative providing guidance on users of financial statements’ needs to present financial disclosures in the notes to the financial statements grouped in more logical orders. But there is and never will be a one-size fits all.

Here it has been decided to separately disclose financial assets and liabilities and non-financial assets and liabilities, because of the distinct different nature of these classes of assets and liabilities and the resulting different types of disclosures, risks and tabulations.

Disclosure financial assets and liabilities guidance

Disclosing financial assets and liabilities (financial instruments) in one note

Users of financial reports have indicated that they would like to be able to quickly access all of the information about the entity’s financial assets and liabilities in one location in the financial report. The notes are therefore structured such that financial items and non-financial items are discussed separately. However, this is not a mandatory requirement in the accounting standards.

Accounting policies, estimates and judgements

For readers of Financial Statements it is helpful if information about accounting policies that are specific to the entityDisclosure financial assets and liabilitiesand about significant estimates and judgements is disclosed with the relevant line items, rather than in separate notes. However, this format is also not mandatory. For general commentary regarding the disclosures of accounting policies refer to note 25. Commentary about the disclosure of significant estimates and judgements is provided in note 11.

Scope of accounting standard for disclosure of financial instruments


IFRS 7 does not apply to the following items as they are not financial instruments as defined in paragraph 11 of IAS 32:

  1. prepayments made (right to receive future good or service, not cash or a financial asset)
  2. tax receivables and payables and similar items (statutory rights or obligations, not contractual), or
  3. contract liabilities (obligation to deliver good or service, not cash or financial asset).

While contract assets are also not financial assets, they are explicitly included in the scope of IFRS 7 for the purpose of the credit risk disclosures. Liabilities for sales returns and volume discounts (see note 7(f)) may be considered financial liabilities on the basis that they require payments to the customer. However, they should be excluded from financial liabilities if the arrangement is executory. the Reporting entity Plc determined this to be the case. [IFRS 7.5A]

Classification of preference shares

Preference shares must be analysed carefully to determine if they contain features that cause the instrument not to meet the definition of an equity instrument. If such shares meet the definition of equity, the entity may elect to carry them at FVOCI without recycling to profit or loss if not held for trading.

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Demand deposits and Cash and cash equivalents

Demand deposits and Cash and cash equivalentsDemand deposits and Cash and cash equivalents – Demand deposits are not defined in IFRS. However, in order to qualify as cash, the related balance needs to have the same liquidity as cash itself, and so funds on ‘demand deposit’ need to be capable of being withdrawn at any time without penalty.

In general, deposits which can be withdrawn without penalty within 24 hours, or one working day, are regarded as being demand deposits. These include amounts deposited at financial institutions (such as funds in a bank current account), and may extend to cover deposits at non-financial institutions such as legal advisers, if funds are held for client in separate and designated accounts that can be called upon by the … Read more

IFRS 7 Other price risks Step-by-step

IFRS 7 Other price risks Step-by-step – Other price risks is part of the risk disclosures requirements under IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures. Other price risks is part of market risk (the other main market risk categories being currency risk and interest rate risk) and is defined as the risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in market prices (other than those arising from interest rate risk or currency risk), whether those changes are caused by factors specific to the individual financial instrument or its issuer or by factors affecting all similar financial instruments traded in the market. IFRS 7 Other price risks Step-by-step

Management should disclose information … Read more

The Statement of Cash Flows

A Historical Perspective on the Statement of Cash Flows

In 1987, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued an accounting standard, FASB Statement no. 95, requiring that the statement of cash flows be presented as one of the three primary financial statements. Previously, companies had been required to present a statement of changes in financial position, often called the funds statement. In 1971, APC Opinion no. 19 made the funds statement a required financial statement although many companies had begun reporting funds flow information several years earlier.

The funds statement provided useful information, but it had several limitations. First, APB Opinion no. 19 allowed considerable flexibility in how funds could be defined and how they were reported on the statement. Read more

IFRS 3 Identify a business

IFRS 3 Identify a business – An entity shall determine whether a transaction or other event is a business combination by applying the definition in IFRS 3, which requires that the assets acquired and liabilities assumed constitute a business. If the assets acquired are not a business, the reporting entity shall account for the transaction or other event as an asset acquisitionSee also the accounting treatment acquisition of a business or asset(s) 

Guidance on identifying a business combination and the definition of a business are as follows:

The definition of a business: An integrated set of activities and assets that is capable of being conducted and managed for the purpose of providing goods or services to customers, generating investment income (such as dividends or interest) or generating other income from ordinary activities.

Identifying a business combination [IFRS 3 B5 – B6] IFRS 3 Identify a business

IFRS 3 defines a business combination as a transaction or other event in which an acquirer obtains control of one or more businesses. An acquirer might obtain control of an acquiree in a variety IFRS 3 Identify a businessof ways, for example:

  1. by transferring cash, cash equivalents or other assets (including net assets that constitute a business);
  2. by incurring liabilities; IFRS 3 Identify a business
  3. by issuing equity interests; IFRS 3 Identify a business
  4. by providing more than one type of consideration; or
  5. without transferring consideration, including by contract alone.

A business combination may be structured in a variety of ways for legal, taxation or other reasons, which include but are not limited to:

  1. one or more businesses become subsidiaries of an acquirer or the net assets of one or more businesses are legally merged into the acquirer;
  2. one combining entity transfers its net assets, or its owners transfer their equity interests, to another combining entity or its owners;
  3. all of the combining entities transfer their net assets, or the owners of those entities transfer their equity interests, to a newly formed entity (sometimes referred to as a roll-up or put-together transaction); or
  4. a group of former owners of one of the combining entities obtains control of the combined entity.

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Hyperinflation in Argentina

Hyperinflation in Argentina – Argentina is now (October 2019) considered to be a hyperinflationary economy. IAS 29 – Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies is therefore applicable to entities whose functional currency is the Argentine peso.

Assessment of the situation

Hyperinflation in ArgentinaIAS 29 sets out a number of quantitative and qualitative characteristics for the purpose of assessing whether an economy is hyperinflationary (IAS 29 3), including:

  • the general population prefers to keep its wealth in non-monetary assets or in a relatively stable foreign currency (e.g., the US dollar or the euro);
  • transactions are conducted in terms of a relatively stable foreign currency;
  • sales and purchases on credit take place at prices that compensate for the expected loss of purchasing power
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Fair value disclosures

Fair value disclosures  – The below illustrative disclosures are limited to financial assets and liabilities measured in accordance with IFRS 9. In many cases, insurers may have other balances that require fair value measurement disclosures in accordance with IFRS 13.

Fair value hierarchy Fair value disclosures


Explanation Fair value disclosures

IFRS 13 73

The insurer categorises a financial asset or a financial liability measured at fair value at the same level of fair value hierarchy as the lowest-level input that is significant to the entire measurement.

The insurer ranks fair value measurements based on the type of inputs, as follows:

IFRS 13 76,

IFRS 13 91(a)

Level 1: The fair value of financial instruments traded in active

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Foreign exchange reserve

The foreign exchange reserve in equity results from translating the financials of foreign operations to include these in the consolidated financial statements

Group cash pooling and company accounts

Group cash pooling and company accounts – Cash pooling arrangements arise where one group entity (which may be the ultimate group parent, or a fellow subsidiary) acts as the treasury function for the rest of the group. Under these arrangements, one entity within a group holds and maintains all cash balances with an external financial institution(s) and advances funds to group entities. Group cash pooling and company accounts

Often, a group treasury function is used in order to make the most efficient use of cash resources within a group, and to enable hedge accounting transactions to be entered into at group-level at the lowest overall cost. Typically, the group entities that act as a treasury function are not financial institutions. … Read more