Contract modifications in power and utilities – Best IFRS 15 Revenue recognition

Contract modifications in power and utilities

One of the most judgemental aspects of implementing IFRS 15 for power and utilities entities is applying the contract modifications guidance to arrangements, such as ‘blend and extend’ arrangements.

Blend and extend arrangements

Blend and extend arrangements are common in the power and utilities industry. In a blend and extend arrangement, the buyer and seller negotiate amended pricing of an existing contractual arrangement, including extending the term of the existing arrangement. It is common for the buyer to benefit from a lower blended price (original price blended with the extension period price which is at a lower rate per unit) and for the seller to benefit from an extended term (original term plus the extension period term).

Management will need to evaluate these types of modifications in order to determine how and when they will be accounted for under the contract modification provisions in IFRS 15.

Blend and extend modifications will typically fall into one of the following scenarios:

  1. The modification creates a separate contract from the existing arrangement. This would be the case if the modification results in an increase in the amount of distinct goods (such as units of electricity to be delivered), and the additional consideration reflects the reporting entity’s stand-alone selling price of the additional promised goods.
  2. The modification represents a termination of the existing agreement and the creation of a new agreement, to be accounted for prospectively. This would be the case if the modification results in an increase in the amount of distinct goods (such as units of electricity to be delivered), but the additional consideration does not reflect the reporting entity’s stand-alone selling price of the additional promised goods (for example, the price per unit of the new distinct goods is different from the market due to the blended price).

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Contract Modifications under IFRS 15

Contract Modifications under IFRS 15

INTRO – Contract Modifications under IFRS 15 – A ‘contract modification’ occurs when the parties to a contract approve a change in its scope, price, or both. The accounting for a contract modification depends on whether distinct goods or services are added to the arrangement, and on the related pricing in the modified arrangement. This page discusses both identifying and accounting for a contract modification, including comprehensive examples.

1 Identifying a contract modification

A contract modification is a change in the scope or price of a contract, or both. This may be described as a change order, a variation, or an amendment. When a contract modification is approved, it creates or changes the enforceable rights and obligations of the parties to the contract. Consistent with the determination of whether a contract exists in Step 1 of the model, this approval may be written, oral, or implied by customary business practices, and should be legally enforceable. [IFRS 15.18]

If the parties have not approved a contract modification, then an entity continues to apply the requirements of IFRS 15 to the existing contract until approval is obtained.

If the parties have approved a change in scope, but have not yet determined the corresponding change in price – i.e. an unpriced change order – then the entity estimates the change to the transaction price by applying the guidance on estimating variable consideration and constraining the transaction price (see variable consideration and the constraint) in Step 3 of IFRS 15. [IFRS 15.19]

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Best guide IFRS 16 Lessee modifications

Best guide IFRS 16 Lessee modifications

summarises the process surrounding changes in lease contracts that identify as lease modification.

A lessee that chooses not to apply the practical expedient (IFRS 16 option for rent concessions arising directly from the COVID-19 pandemic that are not going to be accounted for as lease modifications), or agrees changes to its lease contracts that do not qualify for the practical expedient, assesses whether there is a lease modification.

Overview

A change in the scope of a lease, or the consideration for a lease, that was not part of the original terms and conditions meets the standard’s definition of a lease modification.

A lessee accounts for a lease modification as a separate lease if both of the following conditions exist:

  • the modification increases the scope of the lease by adding the right to use one or more underlying assets; and
  • the consideration for the lease increases by an amount equivalent to the stand- alone price for the increase in scope and any appropriate adjustments to that stand-alone price to reflect the circumstances of the particular contract.

For a modification that is not a separate lease, at the effective date of the modification the lessee accounts for it by remeasuring the lease liability using a discount rate determined at that date and:

  • for modifications that decrease the scope of the lease: decreasing the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset to reflect the partial or full termination of the lease, and recognising a gain or loss that reflects the proportionate decrease in scope; and
  • for all other modifications: making a corresponding adjustment to the right-of- use asset.

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Arrangements that do not meet the definition of a contract

What happens with arrangements that do not meet the definition of a contract under IFRS 15. How are these accounted for? What IFRSs are used in such a case? If an arrangement does not meet the criteria to be considered a contract under the standard, it must be accounted for as stipulated in IFRS 15 15 – 16 (recognition of the consideration received as revenue if certain events have been met or as a liability until one of these events have been met), using the following decision tree: Arrangements that do not meet the definition of a contract


Arrangements that do not meet the definition of a contract

If the arrangements identifies as a IFRS 15 Contract with customers go to Step 2 – 5

References:

  • Contract qualifying criteria –
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Changes in contracted transaction price under IFRS 15

Changes in contracted transaction price under IFRS 15 can occur for various reasons. The standard requires entities to determine theChanges in contracted transaction price under IFRS 15 transaction price at contract inception. However, there could be changes to the transaction price after contract inception. For example, when a contract includes variable consideration, entities need to update their estimate of the transaction price at the end of each reporting period to reflect any changes in circumstances. Changes in the transaction price can also occur due to contract modifications. Changes in contracted transaction price under IFRS 15

Changes in the total transaction price

As stated in IFRS 15 88-89, changes in the total transaction price are generally allocated to the performance obligations on the same basis Read more