IFRS 2 Fair value of equity instruments granted

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IFRS 2 Fair value of equity instruments granted – Share-based payment transactions with employees are measured with reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted (IFRS 2.11).

The fair value of a equity instrument granted is determined as follows (IFRS 2.16-17):

  • If market prices are available for the actual equity instruments granted – i.e. shares or share options with the same terms and conditions – then the estimate of fair value is based on these market prices. IFRS 2 Fair value of equity instruments granted
  • If market prices are not available for the equity instruments granted, then the fair value of equity instruments granted is estimated using a valuation technique.

IFRS … Read more

IFRS 2 Employee equity-settled share-based payment

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IFRS 2 Employee equity-settled share-based payment – Headlines

Employee services are recognised as expenses, unless they qualify for recognition as assets, with a corresponding increase in equity.

  • Employee service costs are recognised over the vesting period from the service commencement date until vesting date.
  • Employee services are measured indirectly with reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted; this is done by applying the modified grant-date method. If, in rare circumstances, the fair value of the equity instruments granted cannot be measured reliably, then the intrinsic value method is applied.
  • Under the modified grant-date method, the grant-date fair value of the equity instruments granted is determined once at grant date, which may be after the
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Fair value measurement

Fair Value Measurement can present significant challenges for preparers of financial statements, particularly because it involves using judgment and estimation. Further, it is the market participant view that shapes fair value, so preparers need to monitor whether the valuation models and assumptions they use for financial reporting appropriately reflect those of market participants.

Fair Value Measurement under IFRS 13: Fair value measurement

  1. defines fair value;
  2. sets out in a single IFRS a framework for measuring fair value; and
  3. requires disclosures about fair value measurements.

The definition of fair value focuses on assets and liabilities because they are a primary subject of accounting measurement. In addition, IFRS 13 is applied to an entity’s own equity instruments measured at fair value.

The … Read more

Insurance contract discount rates

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Insurance contract discount rates – The second element of measuring fulfilment cash flows under the general model is an adjustment to the estimates of future cash flows to reflect the time value of money and financial risks related to those cash flows (to the extent that they are not included in the cash flow estimates).

Here is how the insurance contract discount rates fit into the general model of measurement of insurance contracts. The general model is based on the following estimation parameters:Insurance contract discount rates

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Market consistent measurement of options and guarantees

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Market consistent measurement of options and guarantees Market consistent measurement of options and guarantees – IFRS 17 will require stochastic modelling of financial options and guarantees (such as a guaranteed maturity value), which might not be a common practice in certain territories, as discussed in ‘Example – Stochastic and deterministic modelling‘.

Options and guarantees should be recognised and measured on a current, market consistent basis. All cash flows, including fixed, guaranteed and cash flows variable with underlying items, should be measured on a probability-weighted basis using market variables, where relevant, and considering all possible scenarios.

The measurement of options and guarantees will, in many cases, involve stochastic modelling or using a deterministic model, run multiple times, to reflect a range of scenarios Read more

Disclosure innovations in financial reporting

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Disclosure innovations in financial reporting – This is a note on the innovative history of Philips’ financial reporting, see the ‘Introduction to a history of innovation in financial reporting‘.

In the Netherlands formal legislation concerning financial reporting was introduced rather late in the early 1970s. The lack of formal legislation was a stimulants to applying innovative financial reporting disclosures, bluntly said ‘anything was possible’ there were no legal minimum levels.

This part is based on a research overview by Camfferman (1996) in his paper ‘Voluntary annual report disclosure by listed Dutch companies, 1945 – 1983’. Camfferman’s work identifies 9 disclosure items. The nine disclosure innovations are discussed in here.

(1) Disclosure of Sales Disclosure innovations

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Realisable value measurement

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Realisable value measurement – An asset’s realisable value is the amount for which it could be sold, and a liability’s realisable value is the amount for which it could be settled. Realisable value measurements are often made on a net basis, and here realisable value will be considered in the sense of net realisable value; that is, net of selling costs (for assets) and grossed up for settlement costs (for liabilities). As the actual use of realisable value is limited, it is difficult to say exactly how it would be calculated in practice if it were applied to assets and liabilities generally.

The view could be taken that, in substance, realisable value and fair value are the … Read more