Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution – The best read

Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution

Category description – Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution includes emissions that occur in the reporting year from transportation and distribution of sold products in vehicles and facilities not owned or controlled by the reporting company.

Overview – Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution

Reporting on Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution involves a comprehensive analysis of the logistical processes and operations involved in transporting goods from production facilities to end consumers. Here’s an executive overview:

  1. Scope and Definition: Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution encompasses the movement of goods from manufacturing plants or warehouses to various distribution centers, retailers, or directly to customers. It involves multiple modes of transportation such as road, rail, sea, and air, as well as associated warehousing and distribution activities.
  2. Key Components:
    • Transportation Modes: Assess the utilization of different transportation modes and their efficiency in terms of cost, speed, and reliability.
    • Distribution Network: Evaluate the design and optimization of distribution networks to ensure timely delivery and minimize costs.
    • Warehousing: Analyze the efficiency of warehousing operations in terms of inventory management, storage capacity, and order fulfillment.
    • Last-Mile Delivery: Focus on the final stage of delivery to customers, addressing challenges and strategies for improving efficiency and customer satisfaction.
  3. Performance Metrics:
    • On-Time Delivery: Measure the percentage of deliveries made according to schedule to assess reliability.
    • Transit Time: Evaluate the average time taken for goods to move through the transportation and distribution network.
    • Cost per Unit: Analyze the cost incurred per unit of goods transported, considering transportation, warehousing, and handling expenses.Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution
    • Inventory Turnover: Assess the rate at which inventory is sold and replaced, indicating efficiency in managing stock levels.
  4. Challenges and Opportunities:
    • Infrastructure: Address challenges related to transportation infrastructure, such as road congestion, port capacity, and airport efficiency.
    • Sustainability: Explore opportunities for reducing the environmental impact of transportation and distribution operations through alternative fuels, route optimization, and packaging innovations.
    • Technology Integration: Highlight the role of technology in optimizing logistics processes, including the use of IoT devices, predictive analytics, and automation to improve efficiency and visibility across the supply chain.
  5. Regulatory and Compliance:
    • Compliance with Regulations: Ensure adherence to regulations governing transportation safety, labor practices, environmental standards, and customs procedures.
    • Trade Policies: Monitor changes in trade policies and tariffs that may impact transportation costs, lead times, and supply chain resilience.
  6. Strategic Recommendations:
    • Network Optimization: Identify opportunities to streamline the transportation and distribution network to reduce costs and improve service levels.
    • Technology Investment: Recommend investments in transportation management systems (TMS), warehouse management systems (WMS), and tracking technologies to enhance visibility and control.
    • Collaboration: Encourage collaboration with transportation partners and suppliers to leverage economies of scale, share resources, and mitigate risks.
  7. Future Outlook:
    • Market Trends: Anticipate emerging trends such as e-commerce growth, omnichannel distribution, and the adoption of electric and autonomous vehicles.
    • Resilience Planning: Prepare for disruptions such as natural disasters, geopolitical tensions, and pandemics by enhancing supply chain resilience and flexibility.

In summary, reporting on Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution involves assessing the efficiency, reliability, and sustainability of logistics operations while identifying opportunities for improvement and strategic investment to meet evolving market demands and challenges.

A worked example – EcoFoods Inc.

For this example, let’s consider a fictional company, “EcoFoods Inc.,” which produces organic food products and distributes them to retailers and customers across the country.

1. Scope and Definition:

EcoFoods Inc. operates a complex downstream transportation and distribution network, involving the movement of perishable organic food products from its manufacturing plants to various distribution centers and ultimately to retail outlets and consumers.

2. Key Components:

a. Transportation Modes:

EcoFoods utilizes a combination of refrigerated trucks for land transportation, as well as partnerships with shipping companies for sea transportation of bulk goods. Additionally, it employs air freight for urgent deliveries of high-value or time-sensitive products.

b. Distribution Network:

The company operates multiple distribution centers strategically located across the country to ensure efficient coverage and timely delivery. These distribution centers are equipped with temperature-controlled storage facilities to maintain the freshness and quality of the organic products.

c. Warehousing:

EcoFoods’ warehousing operations focus on efficient inventory management to minimize storage costs and ensure optimal stock levels. It employs barcode scanning and RFID technology for accurate tracking of inventory movement within its warehouses.

d. Last-Mile Delivery:

The company collaborates with local courier services and offers direct-to-customer delivery options, especially for online orders. It leverages route optimization software to ensure cost-effective and timely last-mile deliveries.

3. Performance Metrics:

a. On-Time Delivery:

EcoFoods consistently achieves an on-time delivery rate of over 95%, ensuring reliability for its retail partners and customers.

b. Transit Time:

The average transit time for products from manufacturing to retail shelves is maintained within industry standards, with continuous efforts to optimize routes and minimize lead times.

c. Cost per Unit:

The company closely monitors the cost per unit transported, including transportation, warehousing, and handling expenses, to ensure competitiveness while maintaining profitability.

d. Inventory Turnover:

EcoFoods maintains a healthy inventory turnover ratio by closely managing stock levels and implementing just-in-time inventory practices to minimize carrying costs.

4. Challenges and Opportunities:

a. Infrastructure:

EcoFoods faces challenges related to infrastructure constraints, particularly road congestion during peak hours and limited capacity at certain ports. The company explores alternative transportation routes and invests in infrastructure improvements where feasible.

b. Sustainability:

Recognizing the importance of sustainability, EcoFoods invests in hybrid and electric vehicles for its transportation fleet and implements packaging innovations to reduce environmental impact.

c. Technology Integration:

The company continuously invests in transportation management systems (TMS) and warehouse management systems (WMS) to optimize logistics operations and enhance visibility across the supply chain.

5. Regulatory and Compliance:

EcoFoods ensures compliance with food safety regulations, transportation safety standards, and environmental regulations governing its operations. It maintains robust procedures for quality control and traceability throughout the supply chain.

6. Strategic Recommendations:

a. Network Optimization:

Continuously assess and optimize the distribution network to minimize transportation costs and improve delivery efficiency, considering factors such as customer demand patterns and geographic distribution.

b. Technology Investment:

Further invest in advanced tracking and monitoring technologies to enhance real-time visibility into the supply chain, enabling proactive management of logistics operations and quicker response to disruptions.

c. Collaboration:

Strengthen partnerships with transportation providers, suppliers, and retailers to foster collaboration and streamline end-to-end supply chain processes.

7. Future Outlook:

a. Market Trends:

Anticipate and adapt to emerging market trends such as increasing demand for organic products, growth in e-commerce sales, and advancements in sustainable transportation technologies.

b. Resilience Planning:

Develop robust contingency plans to mitigate risks posed by potential disruptions, including natural disasters, geopolitical tensions, and supply chain disruptions.

By conducting comprehensive reporting and analysis across these key components, EcoFoods Inc. can effectively manage its downstream transportation and distribution operations, ensuring reliable and sustainable delivery of organic food products to its customers nationwide.

 

This category also includes emissions from retail and storage. Outbound transportation and distribution services that are purchased by the reporting company are excluded from category 9 and included in category 4 (Upstream transportation and distribution) because the reporting company purchases the service. Category 9 includes only emissions from transportation and distribution of products after the point of sale. See table 5.7 in the Scope 3 Standard for guidance in accounting for emissions from transportation and distribution in the value chain.

Emissions from downstream transportation and distribution can arise from transportation/storage of sold products in vehicles/facilities not owned by the reporting company. For example:

  • Warehouses and distribution centers
  • Retail facilities
  • Air transport
  • Rail transport
  • Road transport
  • Marine transport.

In this category, companies may include emissions from customers traveling to and from retail stores, which can be significant for companies that own or operate retail facilities. See chapter 5.6 of the Scope 3 Standard for guidance on the applicability of category 9 to final products and intermediate products sold by the reporting company. A reporting company’s scope 3 emissions from downstream transportation and distribution include the scope 1 and scope 2 emissions of transportation companies, distribution companies, retailers, and (optionally) customers.

If the reporting company sells an intermediate product, the company should report emissions from transportation and distribution of this intermediate product between the point of sale by the reporting company and either (1) the end consumer (if the eventual end use of the intermediate product is known) or (2) business customers (if the eventual end use of the intermediate product is unknown).

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Category 6 Business Travel – The best calculation guidance

Category 6 Business Travel

Category description – Category 6 Business Travel includes emissions from the transportation of employees for business-related activities in vehicles owned or operated by third parties, such as aircraft, trains, buses, and passenger cars.

This guidance page for Category 6 Business Travel serves as a companion to the Scope 3 Standard to offer companies practical guidance on calculating their scope 3 emissions. It provides information not contained in the Scope 3 Standard, such as methods for calculating GHG emissions for each of the 15 scope 3 categories, data sources, and worked examples.

Overview  – Category 6 Business Travel

Category 6 Business Travel refers to a specific classification within greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions accounting, focusing on emissions resulting from travel activities undertaken by employees for business purposes. These emissions include both direct emissions from modes of transportation, such as air travel and road transport, as well as indirect emissions associated with travel-related activities, such as accommodation and meals. Here’s a comprehensive overview:

Definition and Classification:

  1. Scope 1, 2, and 3 Emissions: GHG emissions are categorized into three scopes by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol. Scope 1 emissions are direct emissions from sources owned or controlled by the company, while Scope 2 emissions are indirect emissions from purchased electricity, heat, or steam. Scope 3 emissions encompass all other indirect emissions, including those associated with business travel.
  2. Category 6 Emissions: Within Scope 3 emissions, Category 6 specifically focuses on business travel. These emissions include both direct emissions from transportation modes used for business travel and indirect emissions associated with travel-related activities, such as accommodation, meals, and commuting to and from travel hubs.

Characteristics:

  1. Variety of Travel Modes: Business travel can involve various modes of transportation, including air travel, road transport (e.g., car, bus), rail travel, and maritime transport, depending on the distance traveled and destination.
  2. Global Reach: Business travel activities often span multiple regions and countries, contributing to emissions from long-haul flights, intercity road trips, and international travel, which may have different environmental impacts based on distance and transportation mode.
  3. Emission Intensity: The carbon intensity of different travel modes varies significantly, with air travel generally having a higher emissions footprint per passenger-kilometer compared to road or rail transport, due to factors such as fuel efficiency and distance traveled.

Examples:Category 6 Business Travel

  1. Air Travel: Emissions resulting from flights taken for business purposes, including domestic and international travel for meetings, conferences, client visits, and training sessions.
  2. Road Transport: Emissions from road travel, including commuting to and from airports, train stations, or other travel hubs, as well as rental car or taxi services used during business trips.
  3. Rail and Public Transport: Emissions associated with rail travel, bus travel, and other forms of public transportation used for business purposes, particularly for shorter distances or within urban areas.
  4. Accommodation and Meals: Indirect emissions resulting from accommodation, meals, and other travel-related activities, including hotel stays, restaurant meals, and event catering during business trips.

Importance:

  1. Operational Efficiency: Managing Category 6 emissions is essential for optimizing business travel practices, reducing costs, and improving operational efficiency by minimizing unnecessary travel and promoting alternative communication methods, such as video conferencing and telecommuting.
  2. Environmental Impact: Business travel contributes to GHG emissions, air pollution, and resource consumption, highlighting the importance of implementing sustainable travel policies and practices to mitigate these impacts and promote environmental stewardship.
  3. Employee Well-being: Balancing the need for business travel with considerations for employee well-being, work-life balance, and health and safety during travel is essential for fostering a supportive and sustainable corporate culture.

Considerations:

  1. Travel Policies: Establishing clear and comprehensive travel policies, including guidelines for trip approval, travel booking, transportation mode selection, and reimbursement procedures, can help standardize travel practices and promote sustainability.
  2. Alternative Solutions: Promoting alternative solutions to in-person meetings, such as video conferencing, telecommuting, and virtual collaboration tools, can help reduce the need for business travel and lower associated emissions while maintaining productivity and communication.
  3. Carbon Offsetting: Implementing carbon offsetting initiatives, such as investing in renewable energy projects or reforestation efforts to mitigate the environmental impact of business travel emissions, can help companies achieve carbon neutrality and support sustainability goals.

Conclusion:

Category 6 Business Travel represents a significant aspect of a company’s environmental impact, reflecting emissions associated with travel activities undertaken for business purposes. By addressing these emissions and implementing sustainable travel policies and practices, companies can minimize their environmental footprint, reduce costs, and promote employee well-being, contributing to a more sustainable and responsible approach to business travel.

Emissions from transportation in vehicles owned or controlled by the reporting company are accounted for in either scope 1 (for fuel use), or in the case of electric vehicles, scope 2 (for electricity use). Emissions from leased vehicles operated by the reporting company not included in scope 1 or scope 2 are accounted for in scope 3, category 8 (Upstream leased assets). Emissions from transportation of employees to and from work are accounted for in scope 3, category 7 (Employee commuting). See table 6.1.

Category 6 Business Travel

Emissions from business travel may arise from:

Companies may optionally include emissions from business travelers staying in hotels.

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Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution – The best calculation guidance

Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution

Category description – Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution includes emissions from:

  • Transportation and distribution of products purchased in the reporting year, between a company’s tier 1 suppliers1 and its own operations in vehicles not owned or operated by the reporting company (including multi-modal shipping where multiple carriers are involved in the delivery of a product, but excluding fuel and energy products)   – link to figure 7.3 in the Scope 3 Standard
  • Third-party transportation and distribution services purchased by the reporting company in the reporting year (either directly or through an intermediary), including inbound logistics, outbound logistics (e.g., of sold products), and third-party transportation and distribution between a company’s own facilities.

This guidance page for Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution serves as a companion to the Scope 3 Standard to offer companies practical guidance on calculating their scope 3 emissions. It provides information not contained in the Scope 3 Standard, such as methods for calculating GHG emissions for each of the 15 scope 3 categories, data sources, and worked examples.

Overview – Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution

Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution refer to a specific classification within greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions accounting, focusing on indirect emissions associated with the transportation and distribution of products and materials upstream in the supply chain. These emissions occur outside of a company’s operational boundaries but are essential to the production and delivery of goods and services. Here’s a comprehensive overview:

Definition and Classification:

  1. Scope 1, 2, and 3 Emissions: Greenhouse gas emissions are categorized into three scopes by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol. Scope 1 emissions are direct emissions from sources owned or controlled by the company, while Scope 2 emissions are indirect emissions from purchased electricity, heat, or steam. Scope 3 emissions encompass all other indirect emissions, including upstream and downstream activities not directly controlled by the company.
  2. Category 4 Emissions: Within Scope 3 emissions, Category 4 specifically focuses on upstream transportation and distribution. These emissions result from the transportation of raw materials, components, and products from suppliers to the company’s facilities or from one stage of production to another.

Characteristics:Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution

  1. Indirect Nature: Category 4 emissions are considered indirect emissions because they occur outside of the company’s direct operational control but are associated with its supply chain activities.
  2. Supply Chain Impact: Transportation and distribution activities are crucial components of the supply chain, influencing the efficiency, cost, and environmental impact of sourcing materials and delivering products to customers.
  3. Global Reach: Upstream transportation and distribution activities often involve complex logistics networks, including road, rail, sea, and air transport, which can span multiple regions and countries.

Examples:

  1. Raw Material Sourcing: Emissions associated with the transportation of raw materials, such as minerals, metals, agricultural products, and lumber, from extraction sites or farms to manufacturing facilities.
  2. Component Transport: Emissions from the transportation of components, parts, and sub-assemblies between suppliers, subcontractors, and assembly plants in the production process.
  3. Product Distribution: Emissions related to the distribution of finished products from manufacturing facilities to warehouses, distribution centers, retailers, or directly to consumers via various modes of transportation.
  4. Reverse Logistics: Emissions from the transportation of returned goods, recycling materials, or waste products back through the supply chain for disposal, recycling, or refurbishment.

Importance:

  1. Supply Chain Efficiency: Managing Category 4 emissions is essential for optimizing supply chain efficiency, reducing transportation costs, and minimizing environmental impact through more sustainable transportation and distribution practices.
  2. Risk Management: Addressing upstream transportation and distribution emissions helps companies mitigate risks associated with volatile fuel prices, regulatory changes, geopolitical instability, and supply chain disruptions.
  3. Carbon Footprint Reduction: By identifying opportunities to reduce emissions in upstream transportation and distribution activities, companies can lower their overall carbon footprint and contribute to climate change mitigation efforts.

Considerations:

  1. Mode Selection: Choosing the most appropriate transportation modes, such as rail, sea, or inland waterways, can help minimize emissions and reduce environmental impact compared to road or air transport.
  2. Route Optimization: Optimizing transportation routes, consolidating shipments, and improving logistics efficiency can reduce fuel consumption, emissions, and transportation costs.
  3. Collaboration with Suppliers: Collaborating with suppliers to implement sustainable transportation and distribution practices, such as using eco-friendly packaging, optimizing load sizes, and leveraging alternative fuels, can help mitigate Category 4 emissions.

Conclusion:

Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution emissions represent a significant aspect of a company’s indirect emissions profile, reflecting the environmental impact associated with the movement of products and materials throughout the supply chain. By addressing these emissions and implementing sustainable transportation and distribution practices, companies can enhance supply chain efficiency, reduce costs, and minimize their environmental footprint, contributing to both environmental stewardship and long-term business sustainability.

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Carbon dioxide equivalent defined – 1 Best read

Carbon dioxide equivalent defined

In study material each GHG described has a different global warming potential (GWP). The GWP of a given GHG indicates how much energy one unit of the GHG absorbs (i.e., the ability of that gas to trap heat in the atmosphere) compared to one unit of carbon dioxide, generally over a 100-year period.

The larger the GWP, the more that the GHG warms the earth compared to carbon dioxide over the stated time period. For example, PFCs and HFCs often absorb thousands of times more energy than carbon dioxide. The GWP of each GHG is published as a factor and used to translate GHGs, other than carbon dioxide, into carbon dioxide equivalent (C02e) units.

The GHG Protocol considers C02e to be the universal unit of measurement for GHGs since it expresses the GWP of each GHG in terms of the GWP of one unit of carbon dioxide. C02e and individual GHGs are often expressed in metric tons, which is the equivalent of 1,000 kilograms (or approximately 2,204 pounds).

The purpose of this measure is to enable a reporting entity, users and other stakeholders to compare the potency of the overall emissions from a reporting entity, both across entities and over time, even when the composition of the GHG emissions changes.

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IFRS 15 Real estate Revenue complete and accurate recognition

IFRS 15 Real estate

Under IFRS 15 real estate entities recognize revenue over the construction period if certain conditions are met.

Key points

  • An entity must judge whether the different elements of a contract can be separated from each other based on the distinct criteria. A more complex judgment exists for real estate developers that provide services or deliver common properties or amenities in addition to the property being sold.
  • Contract modifications are common in the real estate development industry. Contract modifications might needIFRS 15 Real estate to be accounted for as a new contract, or combined and accounted for together with an existing contract.
  • Real estate managers may structure their arrangements such that services and fees are in different contracts. These contracts may meet the requirements to be accounted for as a combined contract when applying IFRS 15.
  • Real estate management entities are often entitled to several different fees. IFRS 15 will require a manager to consider whether the services should be viewed as a single performance obligation, or whether some of these services are ‘distinct’ and should therefore be treated as separate performance obligations.
  • Variable consideration for entities in the real estate industry may come in the form of claims, awards and incentive payments, discounts, rebates, refunds, credits, price concessions, performance bonuses, penalties or other similar items.
  • Real estate developers will need to consider whether they meet any of the three criteria necessary for recognition of revenue over time.

IFRS 15 core principle

The core principle of IFRS 15 is that revenue reflects the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.

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Low credit risk operational simplification

Low credit risk operational simplification

IFRS 9 contains an important simplification that, if a financial instrument has low credit risk, then an entity is allowed to assume at the reporting date that no significant increases in credit risk have occurred. The low credit risk concept was intended, by the IASB, to provide relief for entities from tracking changes in the credit risk of high quality financial instruments. Therefore, this simplification is only optional and the low credit risk simplification can be elected on an instrument-by-instrument basis.

This is a change from the 2013 ED, in which a low risk exposure was deemed not to have suffered significant deterioration in credit risk. The amendment to make the simplification optional was made in response to requests from constituents, including regulators. It is expected that the Basel Committee SCRAVL consultation document will propose that sophisticated banks should only use this simplification rarely for their loan portfolios.

For low risk instruments, the entity would recognise an allowance based on 12-month ECLs. However, if a financial instrument is not considered to have low credit risk at the reporting date, it does not follow that the entity is required to recognise lifetime ECLs. In such instances, the entity has to assess whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition that requires the recognition of lifetime ECLs.

The standard states that a financial instrument is considered to have low credit risk if: [IFRS 9.B5.22]

  • The financial instrument has a low risk of default
  • The borrower has a strong capacity to meet its contractual cash flow obligations in the near term
  • Adverse changes in economic and business conditions in the longer term may, but will not necessarily, reduce the ability of the borrower to fulfil its contractual cash flow obligations Low credit risk operational simplification

A financial instrument is not considered to have low credit risk simply because it has a low risk of loss (e.g., for a collateralised loan, if the value of the collateral is more than the amount lent (see collateral) or it has lower risk of default compared with the entity’s other financial instruments or relative to the credit risk of the jurisdiction within which the entity operates.

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Control of an economic resource

Control of an economic resource – This is all about: A present economic resource controlled by the entity as a result of past events.

Two very simple examples to start with:

Pat Co has purchased a patent for $20,000. The patent gives the company sole use of a particular manufacturing process which will save $3,000 a year for the next five years.

This is an asset, albeit an intangible one. There is a past event, control and future economic benefit (through cost savings).

Baldwin Co (the company) paid Don Brennan $10,000 to set up a car repair shop, on condition that priority treatment is given to cars from the company’s fleet.

This cannot be classified as an asset. Baldwin Co

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Embedded derivatives best 1 to read

Embedded derivatives are a component of a hybrid contract that also includes a non-derivative host, so some cash flows vary similar to a stand alone derivative

Fair value employee share options in IFRS 2

Fair value employee share options

Share options give the holder the right to buy the underlying shares at a set price, called the ‘exercise price’, over or at the end of an agreed period. If the share price exceeds the option’s exercise price when the option is exercised, then the holder of the option profits by the amount of the excess of the share price over the exercise price. Benefit is derived from the right under the option to buy a share for less than its value.

The holder’s cost is the exercise price, whereas the value is the share price. It is not necessary for the holder to sell the share for this profit to exist. Sale only results in realisation of the profit. Because an option holder’s profit increases as the underlying share price increases, share options are used to incentivise employees to contribute to an increase in the price of the underlying shares.

Employee options are typically call options, which give holders the right but not the obligation to buy shares. However, other types of options are also traded in markets. For example, put options give holders the right to sell the underlying shares at an agreed price for a set period.

Given that holders of put options profit when share prices fall below the exercise price, such options are not viewed as aligning the interests of employees and shareholders. All references in this section to ‘share options’ are to employee call options.

Share options granted by entities often cannot be valued with reference to market prices. Many entities, even those whose shares are quoted publicly, do not have options traded on their shares. Options that trade on recognised exchanges such as the Chicago Board Options Exchange are created by market participants and are not issued by entities directly.

Even when there are exchange-traded options on an entity’s shares for which prices are available, the terms and conditions of these options are generally different from the terms and conditions of options issued by entities in share-based payments and, as a result, the prices of such traded options cannot be used directly to value share options issued in a share-based payment.

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