IFRS 2 Fair value of equity instruments granted

IFRS 2 Fair value of equity instruments granted – Share-based payment transactions with employees are measured with reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted (IFRS 2.11).

The fair value of a equity instrument granted is determined as follows (IFRS 2.16-17):

  • If market prices are available for the actual equity instruments granted – i.e. shares or share options with the same terms and conditions – then the estimate of fair value is based on these market prices. IFRS 2 Fair value of equity instruments granted
  • If market prices are not available for the equity instruments granted, then the fair value of equity instruments granted is estimated using a valuation technique.

IFRS 2 (IFRS Read more

High level overview IFRS 3 Business Combinations


Scope High level overview IFRS 3 Business Combinations

IFRS 3 does not apply to:

  • The accounting for the formation of a joint arrangement in the financial statements of the joint arrangement itself.
  • Acquisition of an asset or group of assets that is not a business.
  • A combination of entities or businesses under common control.


A business combination is: A transaction or event in which acquirer obtains control over a business (e.g. acquisition of shares or net assets, legal mergers, reverse acquisitions).

Definition of a “Business”

A business is:

  • Integrated set of activities and assets
  • Capable of being conducted and managed to provide return
  • Returns include dividends and cost savings.

High level overview IFRS 3 Business Combinations High level overview Read more

Events after the Reporting period

When should a reporting entity recognise events after the reporting period in the financial statements that are being finalised?

What are the disclosures that should be given about the date when the financial statements were authorised for issue and about the events after the reporting date?

The answers look a bit colorful but are spot on and short……

The events

The three important terms were it is all about are:

1. Events after the reporting period:

are those events, favourable and unfavourable, that occur between the end of the reporting period and the date when the financial statements are authorised for issue. (IAS 10 3 Definitions)

2. Adjusting events:

are events occurring after the reporting date that provide Read more

Valuation of unquoted equity instruments

Valuation of unquoted equity instruments – The three valuation approaches and techniques described in IFRS 13 are: Valuation of unquoted equity instruments

IFRS 13  does not prescribe a specific valuation technique, but encourages the use of professional judgment together with consideration of all facts and circumstances surrounding the measurement. These three different valuation approaches could be applied in determining the fair value of an unquoted equity instrument. However, regardless of the valuation technique used, the fair value measurement of those equity instruments must reflect market conditions at the investor’s reporting date.

Market approach

The market approach uses prices and other relevant information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable … Read more

Consolidated financial statements

IFRS 10 Definition of consolidated financial statements

The financial statements of a group in which the assets, liabilities, equity, income, expenses and cash flows of the parent and its subsidiaries are presented as those of a single economic entity.

ParentAn entity that controls one or more entities.

The other types of financial statements are unconsolidated financial statements (or company accounts) and combined financial statements.

Single economic entity concept

The concept of a single economic entity is illustrated in the example below:

Example – Single economic entity concept

A subsidiary buys an asset from a third party for CU 100. It subsequently sells the asset on to its parent for CU 130. The subsidiary records a profit

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Revenue not from a contract with a customer

Revenue not from a contract with a customer – Revenue from transactions or events that does not arise from a contract with a customer is not in the scope of IFRS 15 and should continue to be recognized in accordance with other standards. Revenue not from a contract with a customer Such transactions or events include but are not limited to: Revenue not from a contract with a customer

  • Dividends, Revenue has to be recognized when the owner’s right to receive payment is established. It is only certain when the company declare the dividends on the shares and the directors actually decide to pay the dividends to their shareholders,
  • Non-exchange transactions, such as donations or contributions. For example, contributions received by a not-for-profit entity are not
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Investment valued at cost

Investment valued at cost – A method of accounting for an investment, whereby the investment is recognised at cost. The investor recognises revenue from the investment only to the extent that the investor is entitled to receive distributions from accumulated surpluses of the investee arising after the date of acquisition. Entitlements due or received in excess of such surpluses are regarded as a recovery of investment, and are recognised as a reduction of the cost of the investment.

The cost method is used when making a passive, long-term investment that doesn’t result in significant influence over the company. The cost method should be used when the investment results in an ownership stake of less than 20%, but this isn’t a … Read more

Equity method

Equity method is used to account for investments in associates and joint-ventures. Simply put, the equity accounting method is a simplified form of consolidation (IAS 28 27), with one major difference: items are not added line-by-line, but a single asset (investment in associate or joint-venture) is recognised in the statement of financial position and single lines are presented in P/L and OCI.

The equity method is a method of accounting whereby the investment is initially recognised at cost and adjusted thereafter for the post-acquisition change in the investor’s share of the investee’s net assets.

The investor’s profit or loss includes its share of the investee’s profit or loss and the investor’s other comprehensive income includes its share … Read more

Intrinsic value

Intrinsic value – The difference between the fair value of the shares to which the counterparty has the (conditional or unconditional) right to subscribe or which it has the right to receive, and the price (if any) the counterparty is (or will be) required to pay for those shares. For example, a share option with an exercise price of CU15, on a share with a fair value of CU20, has an intrinsic value of CU5.

In finance, intrinsic value refers to the value of a company, stock, currency or product determined through fundamental analysis without reference to its market value. It is also frequently called fundamental value. It is ordinarily calculated by summing the discounted future income generated by … Read more

Definition of equity

Definition of equity: The residual interest in the assets of the entity after deducting all its liabilities.

Equity claim: A claim on the residual interest in the assets of the entity after deducting all its liabilities.

Equity interests: For the purposes of IFRS 3, is used broadly to mean ownership interests of investor-owned entities and owner, member or participant interests of mutual entities. In the context of this Standard “equity interests” may also mean ownership interests established by other mechanisms such as deed or statute.

The Conceptual Framework provides the following guidance [Conceptual Framework 4.64 – 4.67]: Shares issued Earnings per share

Equity claims are claims on the residual interest in the assets of the entity after deducting all its … Read more