Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies

Get the requirements for properly disclosing the accounting policies to provide the users of your financial statements with useful financial data, in the common language prescribed in the world’s most widely used standards for financial reporting, the IFRS Standards. First there is a section providing guidance on what the requirements are, followed by a comprehensive example, easy to tailor to the specific needs of your company.Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies guidance

Whether to disclose an accounting policy

1. In deciding whether a particular accounting policy should be disclosed, management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in the reported financial performance and financial position. Disclosure of particular accounting policies is especially useful to users where those policies are selected from alternatives allowed in IFRS. [IAS 1.119]

2. Some IFRSs specifically require disclosure of particular accounting policies, including choices made by management between different policies they allow. For example, IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment requires disclosure of the measurement bases used for classes of property, plant and equipment and IFRS 3 Business Combinations requires disclosure of the measurement basis used for non-controlling interest acquired during the period.

3. In this guidance, policies are disclosed that are specific to the entity and relevant for an understanding of individual line items in the financial statements, together with the notes for those line items. Other, more general policies are disclosed in the note 25 in the example below. Where permitted by local requirements, entities could consider moving these non-entity-specific policies into an Appendix.

Change in accounting policy – new and revised accounting standards

4. Where an entity has changed any of its accounting policies, either as a result of a new or revised accounting standard or voluntarily, it must explain the change in its notes. Additional disclosures are required where a policy is changed retrospectively, see note 26 for further information. [IAS 8.28]

5. New or revised accounting standards and interpretations only need to be disclosed if they resulted in a change in accounting policy which had an impact in the current year or could impact on future periods. There is no need to disclose pronouncements that did not have any impact on the entity’s accounting policies and amounts recognised in the financial statements. [IAS 8.28]

6. For the purpose of this edition, it is assumed that RePort Co. PLC did not have to make any changes to its accounting policies, as it is not affected by the interest rate benchmark reforms, and the other amendments summarised in Appendix D are only clarifications that did not require any changes. However, this assumption will not necessarily apply to all entities. Where there has been a change in policy, this will need to be explained, see note 26 for further information.

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Disclosure Financial risk management

Disclosure Financial risk management

Disclosure financial risk management provides the guidance on the need for disclosure of the management policies, procedures and measurement practices in place at the operations within the reporting entity’s group of companies and an actual example of disclosures for financial risk management.

Disclosure Financial risk management guidance

Classes of financial instruments

Where IFRS 7 requires disclosures by class of financial instrument, the entity shall group its financial instruments into classes that are appropriate to the nature of the information disclosed and that take into account the characteristics of those financial instruments. The classes are determined by the entity and are therefore distinct from the categories of financial instruments specified in IFRS 9. Disclosure Financial risk management

As a minimum, the entity should distinguish between financial instruments measured at amortised cost and those measured at fair value, and treat as separate class any financial instruments outside the scope of IFRS 9. The entity shall provide sufficient information to permit reconciliation to the line items presented in the balance sheet. Guidance on classes of financial instruments and the level of required disclosures is provided in Appendix B to IFRS 7. [IFRS 7.6, IFRS 7.B1-B3]

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High level overview IFRS 9 Hedge accounting

High level overview IFRS 9 Hedge accounting

IFRS 9 Hedge accounting

Criteria to apply hedge accounting (all criteria must be met)

(i) Hedging Relationship

Must consist of:

  • Eligible hedging instruments
  • Eligible hedged items.

(ii) Designation and Documentation

Must be formalised at the inception of the hedging relationship, includes:

  • The hedging relationship
  • Risk management strategy and objective for undertaking the hedge
  • The hedged item and hedging instrument
  • How hedge effectiveness will be assessed.

(ii) Designation and Documentation

Must be formalised at the inception of the hedging relationship, includes:

  • The hedging relationship
  • Risk management strategy and objective for undertaking the hedge
  • The hedged item and hedging instrument
  • How hedge effectiveness will be assessed.

Eligible hedging instruments

Only those from contracts with EXTERNAL

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IFRS 7 Interest rate risk disclosure example

IFRS 7 Interest rate risk disclosure example – Interest rate risk is part of the risk disclosures requirements under IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures. Interest rate risk is part of market risk (the other market risks being currency risk and other price risk) and is defined as the risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in market interest rates. IFRS 7 Interest rate risk disclosure example

Management should disclose information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the nature and extent of risks arising from financial instruments to which the entity is exposed at the end of the reporting period [IFRS 7 31]. The disclosures … Read more

Cash flow hedge

The cash flow hedge is one of three hedges defined in IFRS 9, the others are the fair value hedge and the hedge of a net investment, in use to 'insure' risks

IFRS 9 Inflation as a risk component

Inflation as a risk component – Under IAS 39, inflation cannot be designated as a hedged risk component for financial instruments, unless the inflation risk component is contractually specified. For non-financial instruments, inflation risk cannot be designated under IAS 39 as a risk component at all. Inflation as a risk component

Highlight – For financial instruments, IFRS 9 opens the door for designating a non-contractually specified inflation component as a hedged risk component – but only in limited circumstances. For non-financial instruments, the inflation component will be eligible for designation as the hedged item in a hedging relationship provided that it is separately identifiable and reliably measurable. Inflation as a risk component

For financial instruments, IFRS 9 introduces a rebuttable Read more

IFRS 9 Own use scope exemption

IFRS 9 Own use scope exemption

A reduction in the amount of funding available from equity markets, together with difficulty in obtaining loan finance, have meant that a number of developers and producers in the extractives industry have looked to other ways of obtaining finance. An increasingly common approach is to enter into a commodity loan under which a lender advances funds which,instead of being repaid in cash, may be repaid by the delivery of a quantity of a commodity during a specific period. These arrangements have become particularly common when they involve a commodity such as gold, which is traded on an active market. IFRS 9 Own use scope exemption

Key considerations in the application of the IFRS 9

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Hedging of a highly probable debt issuance

Hedging of a highly probable debt issuance – Q: Does IFRS 9 allow a highly probable forecast foreign currency debt issuance as eligible as a hedged item in a cash flow hedge of interest rate risk if the currency of issuance is not yet known?

Considerations:

At 1 January 200X, entity A, whose functional currency is the Euro, intends to issue a variable interest rate debt in six months’ time in order to finance future activities. Depending on the market conditions existing at 1 July 200X, entity A will decide Hedging of a highly probable debt issuancewhether the debt is issued in Euros or in US dollars. If the debt is issued in US dollars, then at the debt issuance date (1 July 200X) entity A … Read more

Cross-currency swap

Cross-currency swap – In a currency swap operation, also known as a cross-currency swap, the parties involved agree under contract to exchange the following: the principal amount of a loan in one currency and the interest applicable on it during a specified period of time for a corresponding amount and applicable interest in a second currency.

  • Cross-currency swaps are used to lock in exchange rates for set periods of time. Cross-currency swap
  • Interest rates can be fixed, variable, or a mix of both. Cross-currency swap
  • These instruments trade OTC, and can thus be customized by the parties involved. Cross-currency swap
  • While the exchange rate is locked in, there is still opportunity costs/gains as the exchange rate will likely change.
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