IFRS 18 Presentation and Disclosure in Financial Statements – Best read

IFRS 18 Presentation and Disclosure in Financial Statements

The IASB’s newly issued standard IFRS 18 mainly deals with the presentation of the income statement, balance sheet and certain footnotes. At the same time, certain aspects of the cash flow statement are modified. IFRS 18 does not change the recognition and measurement of the components of financial statements; therefore, the amounts reported as shareholders’ equity and net income are both unchanged. However, it will have a significant impact on the presentation and disaggregation of what is reported (primarily in the income statement and footnotes), including what subtotals companies must provide and how these are defined.

There are five main areas where we think the new standard will help investors as users of IFRS Financial Statements:IFRS 18 Presentation and Disclosure in Financial Statements

Operating–Investing–Financing classification

IFRS 18 aims to establishes a structured statement of profit or loss by implementing the following measures:

  • It introduces three defined categories for income and expenses: operating, investing, and financing.
    • Operating – income/expenses resulting from the company’s main business operations.
    • Investingincome/expenses from:
      • investments in associates, joint ventures and unconsolidated subsidiaries;
      • cash and cash equivalents;
      • assets that generate a return individually and largely independently (e.g. rental income from investment properties).
    • Financing – consisting of:
      • income/expenses from liabilities related to raising finance only (e.g. interest expense on borrowings); and
      • interest income/expenses and effects of changes in interest rates from other liabilities (e.g. interest expense on lease liabilities).
  • It mandates to present new defined totals and subtotals, including operating profit, thereby enhancing the clarity and consistency of financial reporting.

Entities primarily engaged in investing in assets or providing finance to customers are subject to specific categorisation requirements. This entails that additional income and expense items, which would typically be classified as investing or financing activities, are instead categorised under operating activities. Consequently, operating profit reflects the outcomes of an entity’s core business operations. Identifying the main business activity involves exercising judgment based on factual circumstances.

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Emissions over Time – The 1 Best read

Emissions over Time

The GHG Protocol is designed to enable reporting entities to track and report consistent and comparable emissions data over time. The first step to tracking emissions over time is the establishment of a base year. A base year is a benchmark against which subsequent emissions can be compared to create meaningful comparisons over time and may be used for setting GHG reduction targets.

To comply with the GHG Protocol principles of relevance and consistency, a reporting entity is required to establish and report a base year for its Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions. A base year is only required for Scope 3 emissions when Scope 3 performance is tracked or a Scope 3 reduction target has been set. That is the case whether the entity is reporting under the Corporate Standard or the Scope 3 Standard (see below How to apply the Corporate Standard, Scope 2 Guidance and Scope 3 Standard?).

How to apply the Corporate Standard, Scope 2 Guidance and Scope 3 Standard?

An entity reporting under the Corporate Standard is not required to disclose Scope 3 emissions. As a result, there are three options under the GHG Protocol for reporting Scope 3 emissions, as described in the following table, which is based on Table 1.1 in the Scope 3 Standard:

Option

Description

Applicable GHG criteria

1

A reporting entity reports its Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions and either (1) no Scope 3 emissions or (2) Scope 3 emissions from activities that are not aligned with any of the prescribed Scope 3 categories (the latter is very rare).

  • Corporate Standard

  • Scope 2 Guidance

2

A reporting entity reports its Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions and some, but not all, relevant and material Scope 3 GHG emissions in accordance with the Scope 3 calculation guidance but not with the Scope 3 Standard.

  • Corporate Standard

  • Scope 2 Guidance

  • Scope 3 Guidance

3

A reporting entity reports its Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions and all relevant and material categories of Scope 3 GHG emissions

Consider this!

The GHG Protocol encourages reporting entities to begin reporting GHG emissions information and improve the completeness and precision of that information over time.

While the GHG Protocol requires a company to establish and report a base year for its Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions, a reporting entity that recently started to report GHG emissions information and has not established an emissions reduction target may choose not to set a base year until the precision and completeness of their emissions inventory have improved.

In this situation, the reporting entity should disclose that a base year has not yet been established and the reason for not establishing a base year.

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Scope 1 emissions – Best read

Scope 1 emissions

Scope 1 emissions are emissions from sources owned or controlled by a reporting entity. For example, emissions from equipment, a vehicle or production processes that are owned or controlled by the reporting entity are considered Scope 1 emissions. These emissions include all direct emissions within the entity’s inventory boundary.

The combination of organizational and operational boundaries make up a reporting entity’s inventory boundary, which is also called the reporting boundary. Refer to Organizational boundaries for information on organizational boundaries and Operational boundaries for information on operational boundaries.

The GHG Protocol is designed to avoid double counting GHG emissions. That is, two or more reporting entities should never account for the same emissions as Scope 1 emissions. For example, emissions from the generation of heat, electricity or stream that is sold to another entity are not subtracted from Scope 1 emissions but are reported as Scope 2 emissions by the entity that purchases the related energy.

Theoretically, if every entity and individual throughout the world reported their GHG emissions using the same organizational boundary (e.g., equity share, financial control or operational control approach), the total of all Scope 1 emissions would equal the total GHGs emitted throughout the world.

Types of Scope 1 emissions

The GHG Protocol describes four types of Scope 1 emissions: stationary combustion, mobile combustion, process emissions and fugitive emissions. The type of emissions that are included in Scope 1 will vary based on the industry and business model of the reporting entity.

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The International Sustainability Disclosure Standards – IFRS S1 and IFRS S2 – Best read

The International Sustainability Disclosure Standards – IFRS S1 and IFRS S2

On 26 June 2023 the International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB) released its first two International Sustainability Disclosure Standards (IFRS SDS or the Standards) that become effective for periods beginning on or after 1 January 2024. Together they mark the start of a new era of requiring companies to make sustainability-related disclosures.

The ISSB was launched by the IFRS Foundation at COP26 with the aim of improving the consistency and quality of sustainability reporting across the globe, by matching the importance of sustainability reporting with the current regulations around financial reporting. To reinforce this message, the ISSB sits alongside the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and is overseen by the trustees of the IFRS Foundation and the Monitoring board.

The International Sustainability Disclosure Standards – IFRS S1 and IFRS S2

The ISSB brings together the Climate Disclosure Standards Board (CDSB) and the Value Reporting Foundation (VRF), the name behind the Integrated Reporting Framework and the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) Standards.

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EBITDA – 1 Best complete read

EBITDA – Earnings before interest taxes depreciation and amortisation

– is a measure of a company’s overall financial performance and is used as an alternative to simple earnings or net income in some circumstances. Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortisation, however, can be misleading because it strips out the cost of capital investments like property, plant, and equipment.

This metric also excludes expenses associated with debt by adding back interest expense and taxes to earnings. Nonetheless, it is a more precise measure of corporate performance since it is able to show earnings before the influence of accounting and financial deductions.EBITDA

Simply put, Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortisation is a measure of profitability. While there is no legal requirement for companies to disclose their EBITDA (here also written as EBIT-DA), according to the U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (US GAAP) or International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), it can be worked out and reported using information found in a company’s financial statements.

The earnings, tax, and interest figures are found on the income statement, while the depreciation and amortisation figures are normally found in the notes to operating profit or on the cash flow statement. The usual shortcut to calculate EBITDA is to start with operating profit, also called earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) and then add back depreciation and amortisation.

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/EBITDA

Origins of EBITDA

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IFRS 2022 update – Classification of non-current liabilities with covenants – Best read

Overview – IFRS 2022 update – Classification of non-current liabilities with covenants

In October 2022, the IASB issued amendments that clarify that only covenants with which an entity must comply on or before the reporting date will affect a liability’s classification as current or non-current. IFRS 2022 update – Classification of non-current liabilities with covenants

Additional disclosures are required for non-current liabilities arising from loan arrangements that are subject to covenants to be complied with within twelve months after the reporting period.

The amendments will be effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2024, with early application permitted. IFRS 2022 update – Classification of non-current liabilities with covenants

Why this change?

In January 2020, the IASB issued amendments to paragraphs 69 to 76 of IAS 1 (the 2020 amendments) to specify the requirements for classifying liabilities as current or non-current. A key requirement of the 2020 amendments was that entities with liabilities that are subject to covenants to be complied with at a date subsequent to the reporting period (“future covenants”) do not have the right to defer settlement of the liabilities at the end of the reporting period if they do not comply with the covenants at that date. IFRS 2022 update – Classification of non-current liabilities with covenants

Stakeholders were concerned about the impact of this proposal and, as a result, the IFRS Interpretations Committee (the Committee) published a tentative agenda decision (TAD) in December 2020 explaining how to apply the proposal to three fact patterns. The Committee agreed with the concerns raised in comment letters responding to the TAD about the consequences of the 2020 amendments for certain scenarios and reported them to the Board. On that basis, the Board proposed amendments in November 2021, which, after further adjustments, resulted in the amendments issued in October 2022 (the 2022 amendments). IFRS 2022 update – Classification of non-current liabilities with covenants

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Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies

Get the requirements for properly disclosing the accounting policies to provide the users of your financial statements with useful financial data, in the common language prescribed in the world’s most widely used standards for financial reporting, the IFRS Standards. First there is a section providing guidance on what the requirements are, followed by a comprehensive example, easy to tailor to the specific needs of your company.Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies guidance

Whether to disclose an accounting policy

1. In deciding whether a particular accounting policy should be disclosed, management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in the reported financial performance and financial position. Disclosure of particular accounting policies is especially useful to users where those policies are selected from alternatives allowed in IFRS. [IAS 1.119]

2. Some IFRSs specifically require disclosure of particular accounting policies, including choices made by management between different policies they allow. For example, IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment requires disclosure of the measurement bases used for classes of property, plant and equipment and IFRS 3 Business Combinations requires disclosure of the measurement basis used for non-controlling interest acquired during the period.

3. In this guidance, policies are disclosed that are specific to the entity and relevant for an understanding of individual line items in the financial statements, together with the notes for those line items. Other, more general policies are disclosed in the note 25 in the example below. Where permitted by local requirements, entities could consider moving these non-entity-specific policies into an Appendix.

Change in accounting policy – new and revised accounting standards

4. Where an entity has changed any of its accounting policies, either as a result of a new or revised accounting standard or voluntarily, it must explain the change in its notes. Additional disclosures are required where a policy is changed retrospectively, see note 26 for further information. [IAS 8.28]

5. New or revised accounting standards and interpretations only need to be disclosed if they resulted in a change in accounting policy which had an impact in the current year or could impact on future periods. There is no need to disclose pronouncements that did not have any impact on the entity’s accounting policies and amounts recognised in the financial statements. [IAS 8.28]

6. For the purpose of this edition, it is assumed that RePort Co. PLC did not have to make any changes to its accounting policies, as it is not affected by the interest rate benchmark reforms, and the other amendments summarised in Appendix D are only clarifications that did not require any changes. However, this assumption will not necessarily apply to all entities. Where there has been a change in policy, this will need to be explained, see note 26 for further information.

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Employee benefits accounting policies

Employee benefits accounting policies

This is a separated part of the example accounting policies, it is separated because of the size of this note and the specific nature of employee benefits.

Example accounting policies – Introduction

Get the requirements for properly disclosing the accounting policies to provide the users of your financial statements with useful financial data, in the common language prescribed in the world’s most widely used standards for financial reporting, the IFRS Standards. Here is a section providing guidance on what the requirements are, below a comprehensive example is provided, easy to tailor to the specific needs of your company.

Employee benefits Guidance

Presentation and measurement of annual leave obligations

RePort Plc has presented its obligation for accrued annual leave within current employee benefit obligations. However, it may be equally appropriate to present these amounts either as provisions (if the timing and/or amount of the future payments is uncertain, such that they satisfy the definition of ‘provision’ in IAS 37) or as other payables.

For measurement purposes, we have assumed that RePort Plc has both annual leave obligations that are classified as Employee benefits accounting policiesshort-term benefits and those that are classified as other long-term benefits under the principles in IAS 19. The appropriate treatment will depend on the individual facts and circumstances and the employment regulations in the respective countries.(IAS19(8),(BC16)-(BC21))

To be classified and measured as short-term benefits, the obligations must be expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the annual reporting period in which the employee has rendered the related services. The IASB has clarified that this must be assessed for the annual leave obligation as a whole and not on an employee-by-employee basis.

Share-based payments – expense recognition and grant date

Share-based payment expenses should be recognised over the period during which the employees provide the relevant services. This period may commence prior to the grant date. In this situation, the entity estimates the grant date fair value of the equity instruments for the purposes of recognising the services received during the period between service commencement date and grant date.(IFRS2(IG4))

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Startup valuation

Startup valuation

If every business starts with an idea, young companies can range the spectrum. Some are unformed, at least in a commercial sense, where the owner of the business has an idea that he or she thinks can fill an unfilled need among consumers.

Others have inched a little further up the scale and have converted the idea into a commercial product, albeit with little to show in terms of revenues or earnings. Still others have moved even further down the road to commercial success, and have a market for their product or service, with revenues and the potential, at least, for some profits.

Startup valuationSince young companies tend to be small, they represent only a small part of the overall economy. However, they tend to have a disproportionately large impact on the economy for several reasons.

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