What happened in the reporting period

What happened in the reporting period

There is no requirement to disclose a summary of significant events and transactions that have affected the company’s financial position and performance during the period under review (or simply what happened in the reporting period). However, information such as this could help readers understand the entity’s performance and any changes to the entity’s financial position during the year and make it easier finding the relevant information. However, information such as this could also be provided in the (unaudited) operating and financial review rather than the (audited) notes to the financial statements.

Covid-19
At the time of writing, the biggest impact on the financial statements of entities all around the world is related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Most entities will be affected by this in one form or another and should discuss the impact prominently in their financial statements. However, as the events are still unfolding, this publication is not providing any illustrative examples or guidance. See how to account for Covid-19 to get an up-to-date discussion.

Going concern disclosures [IAS1.25]
When preparing financial statements, management shall make an assessment of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. Financial statements shall be prepared on a going concern basis unless management either intends to liquidate the entity or to cease trading, or has no realistic alternative but to do so.

Read more

Need for accounting measurement the big 1

Need for accounting measurement

Need for accounting measurement provides a summary of the measurement bases in use in Financial Reporting
and the concepts behind these measurement bases.
The measurement bases that will be considered here are

All these bases are forms of accrual accounting – that is, they are intended to measure income as it is earned and costs as they are incurred, as opposed to simply recording cash flows. The last four are all forms of current value measurement.

In forming a judgment on the appropriateness of measurement bases, in literature, the overriding tests has been identified to be their cost-effectiveness and fitness for purpose. However, in the absence of direct evidence on these matters, it is usual to argue in terms of various secondary characteristics that ought to be relevant in assessing the quality of information (see the key indicators in What is useful information?).

The most important of these characteristics are generally considered to be relevance and faithful representation / reliability (older term).

For each basis, an outline is given of how it works and the relevance and faithful representation of the resulting measurements. The question of measurement costs is also considered briefly. In reading the analyses that follow, the following comments should be borne in mind.

Bases of measurement in financial reporting are not carved in stone. Different people have different views on how each basis should work, and meanings evolve as practice changes. Some readers may therefore find that the way a particular basis is described does not match how they understand it.

This does not mean either that their understanding is wrong or that the description in the report is wrong; views on these things simply differ.

Read more

IAS 36 How Impairment test

IAS 36 How Impairment test is all about this – When looking at the step-by-step IAS 36 impairment approach it comes down to the following broadly organised steps: IAS 36 How Impairment test

  • What?? – Determining the scope and structure of the impairment review, explained here,
  • If and when? – Determining if and when a quantitative impairment test is necessary, explained here,
  • IAS 36 How Impairment test or understanding the mechanics of the impairment test and how to recognise or reverse any impairment loss, if necessary. Which is explained in this section…

The objective of IAS 36 Impairment of assets is to outline the procedures that an entity applies to ensure that its assets’ carrying values are not … Read more

How to best account for COVID-19 under IAS 10

How to best account for COVID-19 under IAS 10 Events after the reporting period? The question is whether the COVID-19 crises is an adjusting event of a non-adjusting event for the Financial Statements for the period ended 31 December 2019 that have not been authorised for final distribution to stakeholders or for filing at a chamber of commerce or similar institute.

If it is a non-adjusting event what disclosures does it still require in the financial statements or management report accompanying these financial statements?

In terms of accounting implications, the current consensus is that an entity shall not adjust the amounts recognized in its financial statements (IAS 10 10 Non-adjusting events) as at 31 December 2019 to reflect … Read more

Consolidated financial statements

The financial statements of a group in which the assets, liabilities, equity, income, expenses and cash flows of the parent and its subsidiaries are presented as those of a single economic entity. The detailed ‘mechanics’ of the consolidation process vary from one group to another, depending on the group’s structure, history and financial reporting systems. IFRS 10 and much of the literature on consolidation are based on a traditional approach to consolidation under which the financial statements (or, more commonly in practice, group ‘reporting packs’) of group entities are aggregated and then adjusted on each reporting date.

Events after the Reporting period

When should a reporting entity recognise events after the reporting period in the financial statements that are being finalised?

What are the disclosures that should be given about the date when the financial statements were authorised for issue and about the events after the reporting date?

The answers look a bit colorful but are spot on and short……

The events

The three important terms were it is all about are:

1. Events after the reporting period:

are those events, favourable and unfavourable, that occur between the end of the reporting period and the date when the financial statements are authorised for issue. (IAS 10 3 Definitions)

2. Adjusting events:

are events occurring after the reporting date that provide Read more

Natural disasters Miscellaneous considerations

Natural disasters Miscellaneous considerations deals with several special IFRS accounting issues after a natural disaster.

Future operating losses Natural disasters Miscellaneous considerations

Entities may incur other losses directly or indirectly related to a natural disaster. An entity may anticipate having future operating losses for a period of time after a natural disaster. For example, an entity may have repair costs, lost revenue due to plant closures or losses due to an overall decline in the economy. Additional costs might be incurred in renting alternative production facilities, providing transport or accommodation for employees or outsourcing business functions.

Future operating losses and costs do not meet the definition of a liability (because they do not arise from a present obligation resulting Read more

Retirement Benefit Plans

Retirement Benefit PlansRetirement Benefit Plans

The objective of IAS 26 is to specify measurement and disclosure principles for the reports of retirement benefit plans. All plans should include in their reports a statement of changes in net assets available for benefits, a summary of significant accounting policies and a description of the plan and the effect of any changes in the plan during the period.

Retirement benefit plans are normally described as either defined contribution plans or defined benefit plans, each having their own distinctive characteristics. Occasionally plans exist that contain characteristics of both. Such hybrid plans are considered to be defined benefit plans for the purposes of IAS 26.

For defined contribution plans, the objective of reporting is to provide information Read more

Going concern assumption

Going concern assumption – Going concern is one the fundamental assumptions in accounting on the basis of which financial statements are prepared.

IAS 1 states “When preparing financial statements, management shall make an assessment of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. An entity shall prepare financial statements on a going concern basis unless management either intends to liquidate the entity or to cease trading, or has no realistic alternative but to do so. When an entity does not prepare financial statements on a going concern basis, it shall disclose that fact, together with the basis on which it prepared the financial statements and the reason why the entity is not regarded as a going concern” (IAS Read more

Obligation

Obligations may be legally enforceable as a consequence of a binding contract or statutory requirement. This is normally the case, for example, with amounts payable for goods and services received. However, obligations do not have to be legally binding.

If, for example, an entity decides as a matter of policy to rectify faults in its products even when these become apparent after the warranty period has expired, the costs that are expected to be incurred in respect of goods already sold are liabilities.

Obligations do not include future commitments.

Some liabilities can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation. Some entities describe these liabilities as provisions. In some countries, such provisions are not regarded as liabilities because … Read more