9 Best practical Impairment related company loans

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9 Best practical Impairment related company loans – What are related company loans?

Technically not the most difficult question one would think, BUT………

Entities must first consider whether the loan is within the scope of IFRS 9 or another standard. This is because IFRS 9: 2.1(a) scopes out ‘interests in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures’ that are accounted for in accordance with IAS 27 Separate Financial Statements or IAS 28 Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures i.e. at cost less impairment or using the equity method.

In many cases, it will be clear that the loan is a debt instrument that falls within the scope of IFRS 9 but some scenarios may require a more detailed analysis.Read more

IFRS 9 Proper accounting for Related Company Loans

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IFRS 9 Proper accounting for Related Company Loans – IFRS 9 Financial Instruments makes no distinction between unrelated third party and related party transactions. Entities that prepare stand-alone financial statements are required to apply the full provisions of the standard to all transactions within its scope.

This means related company loan receivables must be classified and measured in accordance with the requirements of IFRS 9, including where relevant, applying the Expected Credit Loss (ECL) model for impairment. IFRS 9 Proper accounting for Related Company Loans

Applying IFRS 9 to related company loans can present a number of application challenges as they are often advanced on terms that are not arms-length or sometimes advanced on an informal basis … Read more

Pass through testing

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Pass through testing Pass through testing provides some examples to learn which types of financial instruments/transactions qualify for accounting for a pass-through arrangement. All the following conditions have to be met to conclude that such pass-through arrangements meet the criteria for a transfer: [IFRS 9 3.2.5]

  • The entity has no obligation to pay amounts to the eventual recipients unless it collects equivalent amounts from the original asset. Short-term advances by the entity with the right of full recovery of the amount lent plus accrued interest at market rates do not violate this condition. Pass-through arrangements
  • The entity is prohibited by the terms of the transfer contract from selling or pledging the original asset other than as security to
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What is a Business Model?

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What is a Business Model? The business model test is about whether the asset is part of a group or portfolio that is being managed within a business model whose objective is to collect contractual cash flows from the non-equity financial asset (Amortised Cost), or to both collect contractual cash flows from the non-equity financial asset and sell the non-equity financial asset (FVOCI). Otherwise, the asset is measured at FVPL. What is a Business Model?

An entity’s business model for managing financial assets:

  • reflects how financial assets are managed to generate cash flows
  • is determined by the entity’s key management personnel
  • does not depend on management’s intentions for individual instruments but is
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IFRS 9 Reclassification of financial instruments

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IFRS 9 Reclassification of financial instruments

For financial assets, reclassification is required between FVTPL, FVTOCI and amortised cost, if and only if the entity’s business model objective for its financial assets changes so its previous model assessment would no longer apply. [IFRS 9, paragraph 4.4.1]

If reclassification is appropriate, it must be done prospectively from the reclassification date which is defined as the first day of the first reporting period following the change in business model. An entity does not restate any previously recognised gains, losses, or interest.

IFRS 9 does not allow reclassification: IFRS 9 Reclassification of financial instruments

  • for equity investments measured at FVTOCI, or
  • where the fair value option has been exercised in any
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IFRS 9 Financial Instruments Measurement

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IFRS 9 Financial Instruments Measurement uses the following criteria for determining the classification and measurement of financial assets at Amortized Cost, Fair Value through Other Comprehensive Income (FVOCI) or Fair Value through Profit or Loss (FVPL):

IFRS 9 Financial Instruments Measurement

The critical issues for classifying and measuring financial assets are whether:

  • The objective of the entity’s business model is to hold assets only to collect cash flows, or to collect cash flows and to sell (“the Business Model test”), and

  • The contractual cash flows of an asset give rise to payments on specified dates that are solely payments of principal and interest (“SPPI”) on the principal amount outstanding (“the SPPI test”). IFRS 9 Financial Instruments Measurement

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IFRS 9 The Business Model Test

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IFRS 9 The Business Model Test is a necessary condition (see IFRS 9 Classification and Measurement of Financial Instruments) for classifying a loan or receivable at Amortized Cost or FVOCI. The test is about whether the asset is part of a group or portfolio that is being managed within a business model whose objective is to collect contractual cash flows from the non-equity financial asset (Amortized Cost), or to both collect contractual cash flows from the non-equity financial asset and sell the non-equity financial asset (FVOCI). Otherwise, the asset is measured at FVPL. The key elements of this test are listed below.

Observe: IFRS 9 recommends applying the Business Model test before applying the SPPI

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The Risk and Rewards Test and the Control Test

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The Risk and Rewards Test and the Control Test are used to validate the accounting for a transfer of a financial asset under IFRS 9 Financial instruments.

Based on criteria in previous steps it has been concluded that an entity has transferred a financial asset (see IFRS 9 B3.2.1).

The central questions here are:

1) has the entity transferred or retained substantially all risks and rewards?

and The Risk and Rewards Test and the Control Test

2) has the entity retained control of the asset(s)? 

Which leads to 3 possible outcomes, or in a diagram:

The Risk and Rewards Test and the Control Test

The risk and rewards test and the Control Test

These steps are set out in paragraphs IFRS 9 3.2.6(a)-(b). The … Read more

Derecognise a transfer of a financial instrument or not?

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Derecognise a transfer of a financial instrument or not – to quickly grow comfortable and get a gut feeling for derecognising a financial instrument read this page. Small cases with different inputs with a analysing comment on the case provide a fruitful learning ground. Here are some examples regarding transfers of financial instruments and the question of whether or not these should be derecognised (and why)? Derecognise a transfer of a financial instrument or not

Transfer versus agency relationship Derecognise a transfer of a financial instrument or not

Question Derecognise a transfer of a financial instrument or not

Is the transfer of securities to a custodian a transfer of the contractual rights under IFRS 9 3.2.4(a)?

Background Derecognise a transfer of a financial instrument or Read more

Derecognise a sale of a financial instrument or not?

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Derecognise a sale of a financial instrument or not – to quickly grow comfortable and get a gut feeling for derecognising a financial instrument read this page. Small cases with different inputs with a analysing comment on the case provide a fruitful learning ground. Here are some examples regarding sale transactions of financial instruments and whether or not these should be derecognised or not (and why)?

Sale of disproportionate interest

Question

Can the sale of the rights to the first of any cash collections from a group of similar financial assets be considered a part of those assets for derecognition purposes?

Background

Entity A originates a portfolio of similar five-year interest-bearing loans of 10,000. A then enters … Read more