IFRS 15 Real estate Revenue complete and accurate recognition

IFRS 15 Real estate

Under IFRS 15 real estate entities recognize revenue over the construction period if certain conditions are met.

Key points

  • An entity must judge whether the different elements of a contract can be separated from each other based on the distinct criteria. A more complex judgment exists for real estate developers that provide services or deliver common properties or amenities in addition to the property being sold.
  • Contract modifications are common in the real estate development industry. Contract modifications might needIFRS 15 Real estate to be accounted for as a new contract, or combined and accounted for together with an existing contract.
  • Real estate managers may structure their arrangements such that services and fees are in different contracts. These contracts may meet the requirements to be accounted for as a combined contract when applying IFRS 15.
  • Real estate management entities are often entitled to several different fees. IFRS 15 will require a manager to consider whether the services should be viewed as a single performance obligation, or whether some of these services are ‘distinct’ and should therefore be treated as separate performance obligations.
  • Variable consideration for entities in the real estate industry may come in the form of claims, awards and incentive payments, discounts, rebates, refunds, credits, price concessions, performance bonuses, penalties or other similar items.
  • Real estate developers will need to consider whether they meet any of the three criteria necessary for recognition of revenue over time.

IFRS 15 core principle

The core principle of IFRS 15 is that revenue reflects the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.

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IFRS 15 Power purchase agreement

IFRS 15 Power purchase agreement

It is common for customer contracts within the power and utilities industry to contain multiple performance obligations. It is essential that power and utilities entities evaluate their portfolio of customer contracts in order to identify explicit and implicit promises to transfer a distinct good or service to a customer.

A promise to transfer a series of distinct goods that are substantially the same and that have the same pattern of transfer to the customer is a performance obligation known as a ‘series’. Contracts for the sale of electricity, and many contracts for the sale of gas to residential and small commercial and industry clients, would represent such a promise.

Sometimes, two products (such as gas and electricity) are sold together. Where multiple products are sold simultaneously, generally:

  1. Gas and electricity are distinct, because (a) a customer can benefit from either gas or electricity on its own (that is, the customer can sell gas and electricity, on a stand-alone basis, into the marketplace, etc.), and (b) the promise to transfer gas or electricity is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract.
  2. The performance obligation to deliver gas and electricity, in many cases, is satisfied over time, since the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the entity’s performance as the entity performs. This conclusion might not be applicable for gas or other commodity contracts, where the customer has storage facilities and does not consume the benefits of the commodity immediately as it is delivered.
  3. Each delivery of gas or electricity in the series, that the entity promises to transfer to the customer, meets the criteria to be a performance obligation satisfied over time, and the same method will be used to measure the entity’s progress towards complete satisfaction of the performance obligation to transfer each distinct delivery of gas or electricity in the series to the customer.

Judgement is required to identify performance obligations in power and utilities contracts. In some jurisdictions, distribution and energy might be distinct performance obligations; while, in others, energy and distribution might be a single integrated performance obligation. This will depend on a number of factors, including whether the customer can choose amongst retailers and the relationships between the providers of distribution, the retailer and the end customer.

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5 steps in IFRS 15 – best quick read

5 steps in IFRS 15

Under IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers, entities apply the 5 steps in IFRS 15 to determine when to recognize revenue, and at what amount. The model specifies that revenue is recognized when or as an entity transfers control of goods or services to a customer at the amount to which the entity expects to be entitled. Depending on whether certain criteria are met, revenue is recognized:

  • over time, in a manner that best reflects the entity’s performance; or
  • at a point in time, when control of the goods or services is transferred to the customer.

IFRS 15 provides application guidance on numerous related topics, including warranties and licenses. It also provides guidance on when to capitalize the costs of obtaining a contract and some costs of fulfilling a contract (specifically those that are not addressed in other relevant authoritative guidance – e.g. for inventory).

5 steps in IFRS 15 – What is IFRS 15?

Step 1: Identify the contract with a customer

A contract with a customer is in the scope of IFRS 15 when the contract is legally enforceable and certain criteria are met. If the criteria are not met, then the contract does not exist for purposes of applying the general model of IFRS 15, and any consideration received from the customer is generally recognized as a deposit (liability). Contracts entered into at or near the same time with the same customer (or a related party of the customer) are combined and treated as a single contract when certain criteria are met.

A contract with a customer is in the scope of IFRS 15 when it is legally enforceable and meets all of the following criteria. [IFRS 15.9]

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Construction contract – How 2 best account for it in IFRS 15

A construction contract is a contract specifically negotiated for the construction of (a combination of) assets that are closely interrelated in terms of design

The perfect 5 step-by-step revenue model

The perfect 5 step-by-step revenue model -IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers was issued on 28 May 2014. It supersedes:

  • IAS 18 Revenue; The perfect 5 step-by-step revenue model
  • IAS 11 Construction contracts; The perfect 5 step-by-step revenue model
  • IFRIC 13 Customer Loyalty Programmes; The perfect 5 step-by-step revenue model
  • IFRIC 15 Agreements for the Construction of Real Estate; The perfect 5 step-by-step revenue model
  • IFRIC 18 Transfers of Assets from Customers; and The perfect 5 step-by-step revenue model
  • SIC-31 Revenue – Barter Transactions Involving Advertising Services. The perfect 5 step-by-step revenue model

IFRS 15 will improve comparability of reported revenue over a range of industries, companies and geographical areas globally.

IFRS 15’s objective is to establish principles that … Read more