IAS 16 Generation assets for Power and Utilities

Generation assets for Power and Utilities

– are often large and complex installations. They are expensive to construct, tend to be exposed to harsh operating conditions and require periodic replacement or repair. This environment leads to specific accounting issues.

1 Fixed assets and components

IFRS has a specific requirement for ‘component’ depreciation, as described in IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment. Each significant part of an item of property, plant and equipment is depreciated separately. Significant parts of an asset that have similar useful lives and patterns of consumption can be grouped together. This requirement can create complications for utility entities, because many assets include components with a shorter useful life than the asset as a whole.

Identifying components of an asset

Generation assets might comprise a significant number of components, many of which will have differing useful lives. The significant components of these types of assets must be separately identified. This can be a complex process, particularly on transition to IFRS, because the detailed record-keeping needed for componentisation might not have been required in order to comply with national generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). This can particularly be an issue for older power plants. However, some regulators require detailed asset records, which can be useful for IFRS component identification purposes.

An entity might look to its operating data if the necessary information for components is not readily identified by the accounting records. Some components can be identified by considering the routine shutdown or overhaul schedules for power stations and the associated replacement and maintenance routines. Consideration should also be given to those components that are prone to technological obsolescence, corrosion or wear and tear that is more severe than that of the other portions of the larger asset.

First-time IFRS adopters can benefit from an exemption under IFRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards. This exemption allows entities to use a value that is not depreciated cost in accordance with IAS 16, and IAS 23 Borrowing Costs as deemed cost on transition to IFRS. It is not necessary to apply the exemption to all assets or to a group of assets.

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In compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards

In compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards – Any entity asserting that a set of financial statements is in compliance with IFRS complies with all applicable standards and related interpretations, and makes an explicit and unreserved statement of compliance in the notes to the financial statements. Compliance with IFRS encompasses disclosure as well as recognition and measurement requirements. [IAS 1 16] In compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards

A few examples of such a compliance statement are provided here: In compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards

In compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards

Source: Unilever Annual Report and Accounts 2018

BP Plc Annual Report and Form 20 F 2010 Statement of compliance with IFRS

Source BP Annual report and Form 20-F 2018 In compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards

The IASB does not carry out any inquiry or enforcement … Read more

Disclosures material joint ventures

Disclosures material joint ventures – The disclosures may be aggregated for interests in similar entities, with the method of aggregation being disclosed (aggregation resembling/replacing consolidation). A quantitative and qualitative analysis, taking into account the different risk and return characteristics of each entity, is made in order to determine the aggregation level. IFRS 12 gives the following examples of aggregation levels: by nature of activities, by industry or by geography. [IFRS 12.4, B2–B6]

However, as a minimum, information is given separately for interests in subsidiaries, joint ventures, joint operations, associates and unconsolidated structured entities. [IFRS 12.B4–B6]

Note a) [IFRS 12 B14(a)]


IFRS 12 indicates that the amounts included in the summarised financial information are Read more

Investments material associates disclosures

Investments material associates disclosuresInvestments material associates disclosures – The subject of investments material associates disclosures may be aggregated for interests in similar entities, with the method of aggregation being disclosed (aggregation being consolidation). A quantitative and qualitative analysis, taking into account the different risk and return characteristics of each entity, is made in order to determine the aggregation level. IFRS 12 gives the following examples of aggregation levels: by nature of activities, by industry or by geography. [IFRS 12.4, B2–B6]

However, as a minimum, information is given separately for interests in subsidiaries, joint ventures, joint operations, associates and unconsolidated structured entities. [IFRS 12.B4–B6]

IFRS 12 emphasises that it’s necessary for financial statement preparers to strike a balance between … Read more

Disclosures in First IFRS Financial statements

Disclosures in First IFRS Financial statements – A first-time adopter must apply all of the presentation and disclosure requirements in IFRSs. IFRS Reference: [IFRS 1, paras 20, 23 – 27A, 29 – 31B]

The first-time adopter must also explain how the transition from previous GAAP to IFRSs affected its reported financial position, financial performance and cash flows. As a result, an entity’s first IFRS financial statements must include the following reconciliations:

Note that the dates presented are examples for an entity with a calendar year end (adopting IFRS in 20X3) that presents only one comparative period.

Nature of disclosure

Comparative year ended December 31, 20×2

Opening as at January 1, 20×2

Reconciliation of equity as at:

  • the date of transition
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Accounting Policies to First IFRS FS

Accounting Policies to First IFRS FS – An entity must use the same accounting policies in its opening IFRS statement of financial position and throughout all periods presented in its first IFRS financial statements. Those accounting policies must comply with each IFRSs effective at the end of its first IFRS reporting period, unless there is a mandatory exception to retrospective application or an optional exemption from the requirements of IFRSs.

[IFRS 1, paras 7 – 9]Accounting Policies to First IFRS FS

Note that:

  • An entity may apply a new IFRS that is not yet mandatory if that IFRSs permits early application.
  • The transitional provisions in IFRSs do not apply to a first-time adopter’s transition to IFRSs.

Mandatory Exceptions to Retrospective Application and Optional Exemptions from Read more

First IFRS financial statements

The first IFRS financial statements must include at least: First IFRS financial statements

  • for the reporting year and the comparative year: First IFRS financial statementsFirst IFRS financial statements
    • a statement of financial position;
    • a statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income;
    • separate statements of profit or loss, if presented;
    • a statement of cash flows;
    • a statement of changes in equity;
    • notes to the financial statements;
  • at the date of transition to IFRSs:
    • an opening IFRS statement of financial position;
    • notes to the financial statements.

Reference: [IFRS 1, paras 21 – 22]

A first-time adopter is an entity that, for the first time, makes an explicit and unreserved statement that its general purpose financial statements comply with IFRSs. [IFRS 1 3Read more

First time adoption IFRS Introduction

First time adoption IFRS IntroductionFirst time adoption IFRS Introduction – It is not only about IFRS 1 when an entity prepares its first IFRS financial statements, but also about some other IFRS because IFRS 1 references to these IFRS standards. Therefore, entities will need to consider the following standards in their first time adoption review process:

IFRS 1 sets out detailed rules that entities must follow when adopting IFRS for the first time. The standard also sets out a number of exemptions that may be applied when adopting IFRS.

If an entity wishes to apply either of these exemptions a full audit trail Read more

Legally enforceable contract

Legally enforceable contract - A contract, under the broadest possible definition, is a legally enforceable promise. Contracts are classified in many different ways.

Disclosure recognised insurance amounts

Disclosure recognised insurance amountsDisclosure recognised insurance amounts

or the clarification and explanation of recognised insurance amounts for a complex industry – insurance. An entity is required to disclose the following:

  • Reconciliations that show how the net carrying amount of contracts within the scope of IFRS 17 changed during each period (see 1 below)
  • Disclosures for contracts other than those to which the entity applies the premium allocation approach:
    • Analysis of insurance revenue recognized in the period for contracts (see 2 below) Disclosure recognised insurance amounts
    • Analysis of the effect of contracts initially recognized in each period (see 3 below) Disclosure recognised insurance amounts
    • Explanation of when the entity expects to recognize the contractual service margin (CSM) at
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