IFRS 2 Fair value of equity instruments granted

IFRS 2 Fair value of equity instruments granted – Share-based payment transactions with employees are measured with reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted (IFRS 2.11).

The fair value of a equity instrument granted is determined as follows (IFRS 2.16-17):

  • If market prices are available for the actual equity instruments granted – i.e. shares or share options with the same terms and conditions – then the estimate of fair value is based on these market prices. IFRS 2 Fair value of equity instruments granted
  • If market prices are not available for the equity instruments granted, then the fair value of equity instruments granted is estimated using a valuation technique.

IFRS 2 (IFRS Read more

Valuation of unquoted equity instruments

Valuation of unquoted equity instruments – The three valuation approaches and techniques described in IFRS 13 are: Valuation of unquoted equity instruments

IFRS 13  does not prescribe a specific valuation technique, but encourages the use of professional judgment together with consideration of all facts and circumstances surrounding the measurement. These three different valuation approaches could be applied in determining the fair value of an unquoted equity instrument. However, regardless of the valuation technique used, the fair value measurement of those equity instruments must reflect market conditions at the investor’s reporting date.

Market approach

The market approach uses prices and other relevant information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable … Read more

Fair Value of Tangible Assets

Fair Value of Tangible Assets – In the event of Business Combinations tangible assets (current – non-current) are best valued with the market or income approaches. If adequate data are not available to derive an indication of value through these methods, an appraiser may use the replacement cost method, which adjusts the original cost for changes in the price level to determine its current replacement cost. The current replacement cost is then adjusted due to physical use or functional obsolescence. Cash-generating unit (CGU) Cash-generating unit (CGU)

Property, Plant and Equipment (PP&E) must be recognized at fair value for current capacity. Accumulated depreciation is not carried forward. An appraiser may use the cost approach, in which a market participant would pay no more for an asset … Read more

Intangible valuation approach

Intangible valuation approach Intangible valuation approach – Valuation assignments must estimate the value of intangibles, recognising the volatility, ongoing creation and problems with protection and enforcement. Business valuation analysts have been independently valuing intangible assets for many years, usually in the context of an exchange between owners (transaction), for estate and gift tax purposes or as part of a litigation assignment. Knowledge underlies the creation of value. Some of the questions that need to be answered include the following:

  • What would a willing buyer pay to employ the intangible asset?
  • What is the useful life of this asset?
  • What portion of the operating income does this asset generate?

Financial reporting concepts require measurement of these separable intangible assets from the overall goodwill in Read more

Capitalisation of earnings valuation

Capitalisation of earnings – The Capitalisation of Earnings Method is an income-oriented approach to valuation modeling. This method is used to value a business based on the future estimated benefits, normally using some measure of earnings or cash flows to be generated by the company. These estimated future benefits are then capitalized using an appropriate capitalization rate. This method assumes all of the assets, both tangible and intangible, are indistinguishable parts of the business and does not attempt to separate their values. In other words, the critical component to the value of the business is its ability to generate future earnings/cash flows. This method expresses a relationship between the following: Capitalisation of earnings

  • Estimated future benefits (earnings or cash flows), Capitalisation of earnings
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IFRS 13 Adjusted net asset method

IFRS 13 Adjusted net asset method and the asset accumulation method are both generally accepted business valuation methods of the asset-based business valuation approach.

First, the valuation expert typically starts with the subject company’s GAAP-based balance sheet. The valuation expert will use the balance sheet dated closest to the analysis valuation date. Preferably, the valuation expert will use the company’s balance sheet that was prepared just before the analysis valuation date. IFRS 13 Adjusted net asset method

Second, the valuation expert identifies and separates (for further analysis) any non-operating or excess assets reported on the balance sheet. Such assets may include vacant land or other assets held for investment purposes. Such assets may also include those assets that are … Read more

IFRS 13 Asset accumulation method

IFRS 13 Asset accumulation method – The asset accumulation method and the adjusted net asset method are both generally accepted business valuation methods of the asset-based business valuation approach.

The asset accumulation method is well suited for business and security valuations performed for transaction, taxation, and controversy purposes. All business valuation approaches and methods can indicate the defined value of the subject business entity. IFRS 13 Asset accumulation method

In addition, the asset accumulation method also helps to explain the concluded value—by specifically identifying the value impact of each category of the subject entity assets and liabilities.

IFRS 13 Asset accumulation method This informational content of the asset accumulation method is particularly useful in a transaction, taxation, or controversy context when the particular analysis … Read more

Asset accumulation valuation example

Asset accumulation valuation example  – The asset accumulation method and the adjusted net asset method are both generally accepted business valuation methods of the asset-based business valuation approach. Here is an example of the asset accumulation method:

A valuation expert has been retained to estimate the fair market value of the total equity of Brown Client Company (“Brown”) as of December 31, 2016. Let’s assume that Brown is a family-owned construction contractor company. Asset accumulation valuation example

The valuation expert decided to use the asset-based valuation approach and the asset accumulation valuation method. sset accumulation valuation example

The Brown GAAP-basis balance sheet for December 31, 2016, is presented on Exhibit 1. All financial data are presented in … Read more

Asset-based business valuations

Asset-based business valuations Asset-based business valuations are one of the most used valuation approaches in accounting. The asset accumulation method and the adjusted net asset method are both generally accepted business valuation methods of the asset-based business valuation approach.

When properly applied using consistent valuation variables, all asset-based business valuation approach methods should conclude approximately the same value for the subject business enterprise.

Additionally, when properly applied using consistent valuation variables, all asset-based business valuation approach methods may be used to conclude any of the following ownership interests:

  1. Total business enterprise (i.e., total long-term debt and total owners’ equity)
  2. Total business assets (i.e., total subject entity tangible and intangible assets)
  3. Total business owners’ equity (e.g., all classes of equity)
  4. A single class of
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