IAS 16 Generation assets for Power and Utilities

Generation assets for Power and Utilities

– are often large and complex installations. They are expensive to construct, tend to be exposed to harsh operating conditions and require periodic replacement or repair. This environment leads to specific accounting issues.

1 Fixed assets and components

IFRS has a specific requirement for ‘component’ depreciation, as described in IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment. Each significant part of an item of property, plant and equipment is depreciated separately. Significant parts of an asset that have similar useful lives and patterns of consumption can be grouped together. This requirement can create complications for utility entities, because many assets include components with a shorter useful life than the asset as a whole.

Identifying components of an asset

Generation assets might comprise a significant number of components, many of which will have differing useful lives. The significant components of these types of assets must be separately identified. This can be a complex process, particularly on transition to IFRS, because the detailed record-keeping needed for componentisation might not have been required in order to comply with national generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). This can particularly be an issue for older power plants. However, some regulators require detailed asset records, which can be useful for IFRS component identification purposes.

An entity might look to its operating data if the necessary information for components is not readily identified by the accounting records. Some components can be identified by considering the routine shutdown or overhaul schedules for power stations and the associated replacement and maintenance routines. Consideration should also be given to those components that are prone to technological obsolescence, corrosion or wear and tear that is more severe than that of the other portions of the larger asset.

First-time IFRS adopters can benefit from an exemption under IFRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards. This exemption allows entities to use a value that is not depreciated cost in accordance with IAS 16, and IAS 23 Borrowing Costs as deemed cost on transition to IFRS. It is not necessary to apply the exemption to all assets or to a group of assets.

Read more

IAS 1 Common control transactions v Newco formation

Common control transactions v Newco formation

are two different events, that sometimes interactCommon control transactions v Newco formation

  • Common control transactions represent the transfer of assets or an exchange of equity interests among entities under the same parent’s control. “Control” can be established through a majority voting interest, as well as variable interests and contractual arrangements. Entities that are consolidated by the same parent—or that would be consolidated, if consolidated financial statements were required to be prepared by the parent or controlling party—are considered to be under common control.Determining whether common control exists requires judgment and could have broad implications for financial reporting, deals and tax. Just a few examples are:
    • A reporting entity charters a newly formed entity to effect a transaction.
    • A ‘Never-Neverland‘-domiciled company transfers assets to a subsidiary domiciled in a different jurisdiction.
    • Two companies under common control combine to form one legal entity.
    • Prior to spin-off of a subsidiary by a parent entity, another wholly owned subsidiary transfers net assets to the “SpinCo.”
    • As part of a reorganization, a parent entity merges with and into a wholly owned subsidiary.
  • Newco formations may be used in Business Combinations or businesses controlled by the same party (or parties). Just a few examples are: Common control transactions v Newco formation
    • A Newco can be formed by the controlling party (for example, to facilitate subsequent disposal of the newly created group through an initial public offering (IPO) or a spin-off or by a third-party acquirer (for example to raise funds to effect the acquisition); Common control transactions v Newco formation
    • A Newco can pay cash or shares to effect an acquisition; and
    • A Newco can be formed to acquire just one business or more than one business.

Read more

1st and best IFRS Accounting for client money

IFRS Accounting for client money

If an entity holds money on behalf of clients (‘client money’):

  • should the client money be recognised as an asset in the entity’s financial statements?
  • where the client money is recognised as an asset, can it be offset against the corresponding liability to the client on the face of the statement of financial position?

DEFINITION: Client money

“Client money” is used to describe a variety of arrangements in which the reporting entity holds funds on behalf of clients. Client money arrangements are often regulated and more specific definitions of the term are contained in some regulatory pronouncements. The guidance in this alert is not specific to any particular regulatory regime.

Entities may hold money on behalf of clients under many different contractual arrangements, for example:

  • a bank may hold money on deposit in a customer’s bank account;
  • a fund manager or stockbroker may hold money on behalf of a customer as a trustee;
  • an insurance broker may hold premiums paid by policyholders before passing them onto an insurer;
  • a lawyer or accountant may hold money on behalf of a client, often in a separate client bank account where the interest earned is for the client’s benefit.

Read more

IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements quick overview

IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements quick overview provides the fastest overview on financial reporting by entities that have an interest in arrangements that are bound by a contractual arrangement providing two or more parties joint control.

OBJECTIVE

To establish principles for financial reporting by entities that have an interest in arrangements that are controlled jointly (i.e. joint arrangements)

IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements quick overview

IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements quick overview

IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements quick overview

SCOPE

IFRS 11 applies to all entities that are a party to a joint arrangement

DEFINITIONS

Joint arrangement

Joint control

Joint operationJoint operator

Joint ventureJoint venturer

Party to a joint arrangement

Separate vehicle

JOINT ARRANGEMENT

A joint arrangement is an arrangement

Read more

Compound financial instruments

Compound financial instruments – An incredible shift in accounting concepts

Compound financial instruments contain elements which are representative of both equity and liability classification.

A common example is a convertible bond, which typically (but not always, see ‘2 Convertible bonds‘ below) consists of a liability component in relation to a contractual arrangement to deliver cash or another financial asset) and an equity instrument (a call option granting the holder the right, for a specified period of time,Compound financial instruments to convert the bond into a fixed number of ordinary shares of the entity).

Other examples of possible compound financial instruments include instruments with rights to a fixed minimum dividend and additional discretionary dividends, and instruments with fixed dividend rights but … Read more

IAS 32 Clearly distinguishing liability and equity

IAS 32 Clearly distinguishing liability and equity – When an entity issues a financial instrument, it must determine its classification either as a liability (debt) or as equity. That determination has an immediate and significant effect on the entity’s reported results and financial position. Liability classification affects an entity’s gearing ratios and typically results in any payments being treated as interest and charged to earnings.

Equity classification avoids these impacts but may be perceived negatively by investors if it is seen as diluting their existing equity interests. Understanding the classification process and its effects is therefore a critical issue for management and must be kept in mind when evaluating alternative financing options.

IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation addresses this classification … Read more

What are related parties?

What are related parties – Related parties are relationships in which one party has the ability to control or significantly influence the economic and operating decisions of another. Transactions with related parties are a common feature of business. Typically related party relationships include the following:

  • Enterprises controlled or controlling one another, such as subsidiaries and joint venturesWhat are related parties
  • Individuals having an interest in the enterprise that gives them significant influence over the enterprise, such as majority owners
  • Key management personnel responsible for planning, directing and controlling the activities of the reporting enterprise, including close members of families of these individuals

Parties are considered related when one of the parties has control over the other or is able to exert considerable influenceRead more

Joint Arrangements

IFRS 11 describes the accounting for joint arrangements. The investor will be required to either apply the equity method of accounting or recognize, on a line-by-line basis, its share of the underlying assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. The accounting treatment required will depend on the substance of the arrangement and the nature of the investor’s interest in it. The option to apply proportionate consolidation has been removed. IFRS 11 supersedes the requirements relating to joint ventures in IAS 31 and SIC 13.

A joint arrangement is an arrangement of which two or more parties have joint control and the following characteristics are present:

Read more

Insurances Classification and Measurement

Insurances Classification and Measurement – Introduction

(first part from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insurance) Insurances Classification and Measurement

Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management, primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent or uncertain loss.Insurances Classification and Measurement

An entity which provides insurance is known as an insurer, insurance company, insurance carrier or underwriter. A person or entity who buys insurance is known as an insured or as a policyholder. The insurance transaction involves the insured assuming a guaranteed and known relatively small loss in the form of payment to the insurer in exchange for the insurer’s promise to compensate the insured in the event of a covered loss.

The loss may or Read more