Disclosure financial assets and liabilities

Disclosure financial assets and liabilities

– provides a narrative providing guidance on users of financial statements’ needs to present financial disclosures in the notes to the financial statements grouped in more logical orders. But there is and never will be a one-size fits all.

Here it has been decided to separately disclose financial assets and liabilities and non-financial assets and liabilities, because of the distinct different nature of these classes of assets and liabilities and the resulting different types of disclosures, risks and tabulations.

Disclosure financial assets and liabilities guidance

Disclosing financial assets and liabilities (financial instruments) in one note

Users of financial reports have indicated that they would like to be able to quickly access all of the information about the entity’s financial assets and liabilities in one location in the financial report. The notes are therefore structured such that financial items and non-financial items are discussed separately. However, this is not a mandatory requirement in the accounting standards.

Accounting policies, estimates and judgements

For readers of Financial Statements it is helpful if information about accounting policies that are specific to the entityDisclosure financial assets and liabilitiesand about significant estimates and judgements is disclosed with the relevant line items, rather than in separate notes. However, this format is also not mandatory. For general commentary regarding the disclosures of accounting policies refer to note 25. Commentary about the disclosure of significant estimates and judgements is provided in note 11.

Scope of accounting standard for disclosure of financial instruments


IFRS 7 does not apply to the following items as they are not financial instruments as defined in paragraph 11 of IAS 32:

  1. prepayments made (right to receive future good or service, not cash or a financial asset)
  2. tax receivables and payables and similar items (statutory rights or obligations, not contractual), or
  3. contract liabilities (obligation to deliver good or service, not cash or financial asset).

While contract assets are also not financial assets, they are explicitly included in the scope of IFRS 7 for the purpose of the credit risk disclosures. Liabilities for sales returns and volume discounts (see note 7(f)) may be considered financial liabilities on the basis that they require payments to the customer. However, they should be excluded from financial liabilities if the arrangement is executory. the Reporting entity Plc determined this to be the case. [IFRS 7.5A]

Classification of preference shares

Preference shares must be analysed carefully to determine if they contain features that cause the instrument not to meet the definition of an equity instrument. If such shares meet the definition of equity, the entity may elect to carry them at FVOCI without recycling to profit or loss if not held for trading.

Read more

Reform of interest rate benchmarks

Reform of interest rate benchmarks

Certain interest rate benchmarks including LIBOR, EURIBOR and EONIA are being or have recently been reformed.

What are interest rate benchmarks?

Interest rate benchmark are used to determine

  1. the amount of interest payable for a wide range of financial products such as derivatives, bonds, loans, structured products and mortgages, and
  2. the valuation of financial products.

The most common examples of interest rate benchmarks used in financial contracts across the world are the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) and for the Euro, the Euro Interbank Offered Rate (EURIBOR) and Euro Overnight Index Average (EONIA).

Why are these benchmarks being reformed?

As benchmark rates are fundamental to so many financial contracts, they need to be robust, reliable and fit for purpose. Each of these interest rate benchmarks subject to reform were based on the rates at which banks lend to each other in the interbank market.

Financial regulatory authorities have expressed their concern that because interbank lending transactions have significantly decreased in recent years, the Reform of interest rate benchmarksbenchmark rates may no longer be representative or reliable.

This concern has resulted in recommendations made by the Financial Stability Board towards the global financial industry to reform the major interest rate benchmarks and to develop a set of alternative rates that are more representative of the current financial environment.

IFRS Reporting disclosure amendments

The amendments made to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments, IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement and IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures provide certain reliefs in relation to interest rate benchmark reform. The reliefs relate to hedge accounting and have the effect that the reforms should not generally cause hedge accounting to terminate. However, any hedge ineffectiveness should continue to be recorded in the income statement. Given the pervasive nature of hedges involving interbank offered rates (IBOR)-based contracts, the reliefs will affect companies in all industries.

Entities relying on the relief must disclose:

  1. the significant interest rate benchmarks to which the entity’s hedging relationships are exposed
  2. the extent of the risk exposure that the entity manages that is directly affected by the interest rate benchmark reform
  3. how the entity is managing the process of transition to alternative benchmark rates
  4. a description of significant assumptions or judgements that the entity made in applying the reliefs, and
  5. the nominal amount of the hedging instruments in those hedging relationships. [IFRS 7.24H]

Information about how the entity is managing the transition process will provide users with an indication of the extent to which management is prepared for the transition. For example, this could include explanations about differences in fallback provisions between the hedged item and the hedging instruments.

The amendments are not clear whether the disclosure of the extent of the risk exposure that the entity manages could be provided on a qualitative rather than quantitative basis. However, numerical disclosures may be more useful for users.

Accounting policies relating to hedge accounting will need to be updated to reflect the reliefs. Fair value disclosures may also be impacted due to transfers between levels in the fair value hierarchy as markets become more / less liquid.

Entities should consider whether further disclosure of the impending replacement of IBOR should be provided in other parts of the annual report, for example in management’s discussion and analysis.

This Example Disclosure Related party transactions shows the disclosures an entity would have to add if it has a loan with an interest rate based on 3-month GPB LIBOR and a cash flow hedge in the form of a floating-to-fixed rate interest rate swap that is referenced to LIBOR. The disclosures assume that the entity has adopted the hedge accounting requirements of IFRS 9.

While primarily illustrating the disclosures required by the amendments made to IFRS 7 and other hedge accounting disclosures affected by IBOR reform, extractsReform of interest rate benchmarks of other disclosures from the main body of the publication have been included, to provide some context for the additional disclosures.

New or revised disclosures are highlighted with shading. This appendix does not illustrate disclosures that may be required if the terms of the loan and the swap have moved to new benchmark rates.

12 Financial risk management (extracts)

12(a) Derivatives (extracts)

(iv) Hedge effectiveness (extracts)

Hedge ineffectiveness for interest rate swaps is assessed using the same principles as for hedges of foreign currency purchases. It may occur due to:

  • the credit value/debit value adjustment on the interest rate swaps which is not matched by the loan
  • differences in critical terms between the interest rate swaps and loans, and
  • the effects of the forthcoming reforms to GBP LIBOR, because these might take effect at a different time and have a different impact on the hedged item (the floating-rate debt) and the hedging instrument (the interest rate swap used to hedge the debt). Further details of these reforms are set out below. [IFRS 7.22B(c), IFRS 7.23D]

Ineffectiveness of CUXX,XXX has been recognised in relation to the interest rate swaps in other gains or losses in profit or loss for 2020 (2019 CUXX,XXX). The significant increase in ineffectiveness in the current year was caused by the expectation that the interest rate swap and the hedged debt will move from GBP LIBOR to SONIA at different dates. [IFRS 7.24C(b)(ii)]

12(b) Market riskReform of interest rate benchmarks

[IFRS 7.33]

(ii) Cash flow and fair value interest rate risk

[IFRS 7.21C]

The group’s main interest rate risk arises from long-term borrowings with variable rates, which expose the group to cash flow interest rate risk. Group policy is to maintain at least 50% of its borrowings at fixed rate, using floating-to-fixed interest rate swaps to achieve this when necessary.

Generally, the group enters into long-term borrowings at floating rates and swaps them into fixed rates that are lower than those available if the group borrowed at fixed rates directly. During 2020 and 2019, the group’s borrowings at variable rate were mainly denominated in Oneland currency units and US dollars. Except for the GBP LIBOR floating rate debt noted below, other variable interest rates were not referenced to interbank offered rates (IBORs) that will be affected by the IBOR reforms. [IFRS7.22A(a),(b), IFRS7.33(a),(b)]

Included in the variable rate borrowings is a 10-year floating-rate debt of CU10,000,000 (2019 CU10,000,000) whose interest rate is based on 3 month GBP LIBOR. To hedge the variability of in cash flows of this loan, the group has entered into a 10-year interest rate swap with key terms (principal amount, payment dates, repricing dates, currency) that match those of the debt on which it pays a fixed rate and receives a variable rate. [IFRS 7.24H(a)]

The group’s borrowings and receivables are carried at amortised cost. The borrowings are periodically contractually repriced (see below) and to that extent are also exposed to the risk of future changes in market interest rates.

The exposure of the group’s borrowings to interest rate changes and the contractual re-pricing dates of the borrowings at the end of the reporting period are as follows: [IFRS 7.22A(c), IFRS 7.34(a), IFRS 7.24H(b)]

Amounts in CU’000


%of total


% of total

Variable rate borrowings – GBP LIBOR





Variable rate borrowings – non-IBOR





Fixed rate borrowings – repricing or maturity dates:

– Less than one year





– 1 – 5 years





– Over 5 years










An analysis by maturities is provided in note 12(d) below. The percentage of total loans shows the proportion of loans that are currently at variable rates in relation to the total amount of borrowings.

Instruments used by the group

Swaps currently in place cover approximately 37% (2019 – 37%) of the variable loan principal outstanding. The fixed interest rates of the swaps range between 7.8% and 8.3% (2019 – 9.0% and 9.6%), and the variable rates of the loans are between 0.5% and 1.0% above the 90 day bank bill rate or LIBOR which, at the end of the reporting period, were 8.2% and x.x% respectively (2019 – 9.4% and x.x%). [IFRS 7.22B(a), IFRS 7.23B]

The swap contracts require settlement of net interest receivable or payable every 90 days. The settlement dates coincide with the dates on which interest is payable on the underlying debt. [IFRS 7.22B(a)]

Effects of hedge accounting on the financial position and performance

The effects of the interest rate swaps on the group’s financial position and performance are as follows:

Amounts in CU’000



Interest rate swaps

Carrying amount (current and non-current asset)

[IFRS 7.24A(a)(b)]



Notional amount – LIBOR based swaps [IFRS 7.24H(b),(e)]



Maturity date [IFRS 7.23B(a)]



Hedge ratio [IFRS 7.22B(c)]

1 : 1

1 : 1

Change in fair value of outstanding hedging instruments since 1 January [IFRS 7.24A(c)]



Change in value of hedged item used to determine hedge effectiveness [IFRS 7.24B(b)(i)]



Weighted average hedged rate for the year [IFRS 7.23B(b)]



Notional amount – non-LIBOR based swaps [IFRS 7.24H(b),(e)]



Maturity date [IFRS 7.23B(a)]



Hedge ratio [IFRS 7.22B(c)]

1 : 1

1 : 1

Change in fair value of outstanding hedging instruments since 1 January [IFRS 7.24A(c)]



Change in value of hedged item used to determine hedge effectiveness [IFRS 7.24B(b)(i)]



Weighted average hedged rate for the year [IFRS 7.23B(b)]



xx) Significant judgements

Interest rate benchmark reform

Following the financial crisis, the reform and replacement of benchmark interest rates such as GBP LIBOR and other interbank offered rates (‘IBORs’) has become a priority for global regulators. There is currently uncertainty around the timing and precise nature of these changes. [IFRS 7.24H(b)]

To transition existing contracts and agreements that reference GBP LIBOR to SONIA, adjustments for term differences and credit differences might need to be applied to SONIA, to enable the two benchmark rates to be economically equivalent on transition.

Group treasury is managing the group’s GBP LIBOR transition plan. The greatest change will be amendments to the contractual terms of the GBP LIBOR-referenced floating-rate debt and the associated swap and the corresponding update of the hedge designation. However, the changed reference rate may also affect other systems, processes, risk and valuation models, as well as having tax and accounting implications. [IFRS 7.24H(c)]

Relief applied

The group has applied the following reliefs that were introduced by the amendments made to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments in September 2019:

  • When considering the ‘highly probable’ requirement, the group has assumed that the GBP LIBOR interest rate on which the group’s hedged debt is based does not change as a result of IBOR reform.
  • In assessing whether the hedge is expected to be highly effective on a forward-looking basis the group has assumed that the GBP LIBOR interest rate on which the cash flows of the hedged debt and the interest rate swap that hedges it are based is not altered by LIBOR reform.
  • The group has not recycled the cash flow hedge reserve relating to the period after the reforms are expected to take effect.
Assumptions made

In calculating the change in fair value attributable to the hedged risk of floating-rate debt, the group has made the following assumptions that reflect its current expectations:

  • The floating-rate debt will move to SONIA during 2022 and the spread will be similar to the spread included in the interest rate swap used as the hedging instrument.
  • No other changes to the terms of the floating-rate debt are anticipated.
  • The group has incorporated the uncertainty over when the floating-rate debt will move to SONIA, the resulting adjustment to the spread, and the other aspects of the reform that have not yet been finalised by adding an additional spread to the discount rate used in the calculation. [IFRS 7.24H(d)]

Reform of interest rate benchmarks

Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks

Annualreporting provides financial reporting narratives using IFRS keywords and terminology for free to students and others interested in financial reporting. The information provided on this website is for general information and educational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for professional advice. Use at your own risk. Annualreporting is an independent website and it is not affiliated with, endorsed by, or in any other way associated with the IFRS Foundation. For official information concerning IFRS Standards, visit IFRS.org or the local representative in your jurisdiction.

Reform of interest rate benchmarks

Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks Reform of interest rate benchmarks

Best complete read IAS 24 Disclosure Related party transactions

– Learn how to do it –

Disclosure Related party transactions provides a summary of IFRS reporting requirements regarding IAS 24 Related party transactions and a possible disclosure schedule. However, as this publication is a reference tool, no disclosures have been removed based on materiality. Instead, illustrative disclosures for as many common scenarios as possible have been included. Please note that the amounts disclosed in this publication are purely for illustrative purposes and may not be consistent throughout the example disclosure related party transactions.


All of the related party information required by IAS 24 that is relevant to the Reporting entity Plc has been presented, or referred to, in one note. This is considered to be a convenient and desirable method of presentation, but there is no requirement to present the information in this manner. Compliance with the standard could also be achieved by disclosing the information in relevant notes throughout the financial statements.


The disclosures required by IAS 24 apply to the financial statements when the information is material. According to IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements, Disclosure Related party transactionsmateriality depends on the size and nature of an item. It may be necessary to treat an item or a group of items as material because of their nature, even if they would not be judged material on the basis of the amounts involved. This may apply when transactions occur between an entity and parties who have a fiduciary responsibility in relation to that entity, such as those transactions between the entity and its key management personnel. [IAS1.7]

Key management personnel compensation

While the disclosures under paragraph 17 of IAS 24 are subject to materiality, this must be determined based on both quantitative and qualitative factors. In general, it will not be appropriate to omit the aggregate compensation disclosures based on materiality. Whether it will be possible to satisfy the disclosure by reference to another document, such as a remuneration report, will depend on local regulation. IAS 24 itself does not specifically permit such cross-referencing.

Read more

The Statement of Cash Flows

A Historical Perspective on the Statement of Cash Flows

In 1987, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued an accounting standard, FASB Statement no. 95, requiring that the statement of cash flows be presented as one of the three primary financial statements. Previously, companies had been required to present a statement of changes in financial position, often called the funds statement. In 1971, APC Opinion no. 19 made the funds statement a required financial statement although many companies had begun reporting funds flow information several years earlier.

The funds statement provided useful information, but it had several limitations. First, APB Opinion no. 19 allowed considerable flexibility in how funds could be defined and how they were reported on the statement. Read more

IFRS 13 Asset accumulation method

IFRS 13 Asset accumulation method – The asset accumulation method and the adjusted net asset method are both generally accepted business valuation methods of the asset-based business valuation approach.

The asset accumulation method is well suited for business and security valuations performed for transaction, taxation, and controversy purposes. All business valuation approaches and methods can indicate the defined value of the subject business entity. IFRS 13 Asset accumulation method

In addition, the asset accumulation method also helps to explain the concluded value—by specifically identifying the value impact of each category of the subject entity assets and liabilities.

IFRS 13 Asset accumulation methodThis informational content of the asset accumulation method is particularly useful in a transaction, taxation, or controversy context when the particular analysis … Read more

Individual or collective assessment for impairment – Which 1 is best varies per case

Individual or collective assessment for impairment - An entity should normally identify significant increases in credit risk and recognise lifetime ECLs

Financial Crises – How 2 best understand it

Financial Crises – Behind the more recent financial and economic crises beginning in 2007 lies the fact that banks and investors forgot the principle of the conservation of value. Let’s see how. First, individuals and speculators bought homes—illiquid assets, meaning they take a while to sell. They took out mortgages on which the interest was set at artificially low teaser rates for the first few years but rose substantially when the teaser rates expired and the required principal payments kicked in. In these transactions, the lender and knew the couldn’t afford … Read more

Securitisation in 1 Best Complete Reading

Securitisation entails pooling the cash flows and selling them to investors via a special purpose vehicle, turning ‘illiquid’ assets into a more ‘liquid’ asset.

Corporate asset-backed security – How 2 best account it in IFRS 9 IAS 32

Corporate asset-backed security includes ‘whole business’ securities based on the cash flows of an entire business unit, such as franchise or brand royalties.