Best guide IFRS 16 Lessor modifications

Best guide IFRS 16 Lessor modifications

summarises the accounting for lessor modifications that depends on – and may change – the lease classification.

Unlike IAS 17 Leases, the new standard provides detailed guidance on the lessor accounting for lease modifications, with separate guidance for modifications to finance leases and operating leases.

However, additional complexities arise for modifications of a finance lease receivable not accounted for as a separate lease for which, under paragraph 80(b) of IFRS 16, the lessor applies the requirements of IFRS 9 Financial Instruments. A number of issues arise due to differences in the basic concepts between IFRS 16 and IFRS 9.

The following diagram summarises the accounting for lease modifications by a lessor.

Best guide IFRS 16 Lessor modifications

Separate lease Not a separate lease – Finance to operating Not a separate lease – Finance to finance Lessor modifications to operating expenses

* A lessee reassessment of whether it is reasonably certain to exercise an option to extend, or not to exercise a termination option, included in the original lease contract is not a lease modification

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Best focus on IFRS 16 Leases

Focus on IFRS 16 Leases

 

Best focus on IFRS 16 Leases Best focus on IFRS 16 Leases

Source: BDO – IFRS at a glance

Focus on IFRS 16 Leases or in slightly more detail…..

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Determining a leases discount rate

Determining a leases discount rate

IFRS 16.26 sets out the discount rate requirement as follows:

At the commencement date, a lessee shall measure the lease liability at the present value of the lease payments that are not paid at that date. The lease payments shall be discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease, if that rate can be readily determined. If that rate cannot be readily determined, the lessee shall use the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate.”

Given a significant number of organisations are unlikely to have the necessary historical data to determine the interest rate implicit in the lease (“IRIIL”) for transition, it seems logical that the use of the incremental borrowing rate (“IBR”) will be relatively common at the date of adoption.

Additionally, any company choosing to use one of the modified retrospective approaches is required to use the IBR. For leases signed after transition, companies may be more readily able to determine IRIIL, however it is likely that companies will enter into leases which require the continued use of the IBR.

Lessee’s incremental borrowing rate

The rate of interest that a lessee would have to pay to borrow over a similar term, and with a similar security, the funds necessary to obtain an asset of a similar value to the right of use asset in a similar economic environment.”

Additional detail on determining the incremental borrowing rate can be found in the guidance outlining the transition related practical expedient for using a single discount rate for a portfolio of leases:

a lessee may apply a single discount rate to a portfolio of leases with reasonably similar characteristics (such as leases with a similar remaining lease term for a similar class of underlying asset in a similar economic environment).”

Combining these two aspects together results in the six factors (in green) requiring consideration in determining an IBR, either for an individual lease or a portfolio of leases.

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IAS 36 Other impairment issues

IAS 36 Other impairment issues – When looking at the step-by-step IAS 36 impairment approach it comes down to the following broadly organised steps: IAS 36 How Impairment test

  • What?? – Determining the scope and structure of the impairment review, explained here,
  • If and when? – Determining if and when a quantitative impairment test is necessary, explained here,
  • IAS 36 How Impairment test or understanding the mechanics of the impairment test and how to recognise or reverse any impairment loss, if necessary, which is explained here

IAS 36 Other impairment issues discusses other common application issues encountered when applying IAS 36, including those related to:

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Leveraged buyout IFRS 3 best reporting

Leveraged buyout IFRS 3 best reporting – In corporate finance, a leveraged buyout (LBO) is a transaction where a company is acquired using debt as the main source of consideration. These transactions typically occur when a private equity (PE) firm borrows as much as they can from a variety of lenders (up to 70 or 80 percent of the purchase price) and funds the balance with their own equity. Leveraged buyout IFRS 3 best reporting

1 The process and business reason

The use of leverage (debt) enhances expected returns to the private equity firm. By putting in as little of their own money as possible, PE firms can achieve a large return on equity (ROE) and internal rate of return … Read more

Does a contract include a lease?

Does a contract include a lease? is a game like type of thing, walk through a few questions and you have decided whether a contract includes a lease or not.

As from 1 January 2019, the lessee is required to recognise almost all lease contracts on the balance sheet. The distinction between operating lease and finance lease has almost vanished.  The only optional exemptions are for certain short-term leases and leases of low-value assets.  Does a contract include a lease

IFRS 16 defines a lease as a contract, or part of a contract, that conveys the right to use an asset (the underlying asset) for a period of time in exchange for consideration.

This walk through decision model may … Read more

Firm commitment

A firm commitment is a binding agreement for the exchange of a specified quantity of resources at a specified price on a specified future date or dates.

Sale and leaseback accounting

Sale and leaseback accounting – IFRS 16 makes significant changes to sale and leaseback accounting. A sale and leaseback transaction is one where an entity (the seller-lessee) transfers an asset to another entity (the buyer-lessor) for consideration and leases that asset back from the buyer-lessor.

A sale and leaseback transaction is a popular way for entities to secure long-term financing from substantial property, plant and equipment assets such as land and buildings. IAS 17 covered the accounting for a sale and leaseback transaction in considerable detail but only from the perspective of the seller-lessee. As IFRS 16 has withdrawn the concepts of operating leases and finance leases from lessee accounting, the accounting requirements that the seller-lessee must apply to a … Read more

Case IFRS 16 Lease car contract

Case IFRS 16 Lease car contract Case IFRS 16 Lease car contract – Because this is a quite frequently used type of lease it is good to get an understanding of how to apply IFRS 16 on a car lease. This includes all the detailed calculations in spreadsheet examples (including Excel functions used) needed to record the correct entries.

The case:

Contract commencement date: 27/02/2017
Lease term: 48 months
The lessor’s investment in the car is EUR 20,872.33
The residual value of the car is EUR 12,112.00
The monthly lease payment is EUR 231.08 payable at month-end

The lease payment includes the payment of interest and principal and is an operating lease that includes car related taxes, maintenance and repairs, car insurance, administration and management fees. … Read more

Leasehold makegood and restoration provisions

Leasehold makegood and restoration provisions – Lease makegood / leasehold restoration provisions should be recognised in relation to properties held under operating leases. Such a provision may arise because many property leases contain clauses under which the lessee has to make good dilapidations or other damage which occurs to the property during the course of the lease or restore a property to a specified condition.

Overview Leasehold makegood and restoration provisions leased office

Under IAS 37 14, a provision shall be recognised when: Leasehold makegood and restoration provisions leased office

  • “An entity has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event;
  • It is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be
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