Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies

Get the requirements for properly disclosing the accounting policies to provide the users of your financial statements with useful financial data, in the common language prescribed in the world’s most widely used standards for financial reporting, the IFRS Standards. First there is a section providing guidance on what the requirements are, followed by a comprehensive example, easy to tailor to the specific needs of your company.Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies guidance

Whether to disclose an accounting policy

1. In deciding whether a particular accounting policy should be disclosed, management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in the reported financial performance and financial position. Disclosure of particular accounting policies is especially useful to users where those policies are selected from alternatives allowed in IFRS. [IAS 1.119]

2. Some IFRSs specifically require disclosure of particular accounting policies, including choices made by management between different policies they allow. For example, IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment requires disclosure of the measurement bases used for classes of property, plant and equipment and IFRS 3 Business Combinations requires disclosure of the measurement basis used for non-controlling interest acquired during the period.

3. In this guidance, policies are disclosed that are specific to the entity and relevant for an understanding of individual line items in the financial statements, together with the notes for those line items. Other, more general policies are disclosed in the note 25 in the example below. Where permitted by local requirements, entities could consider moving these non-entity-specific policies into an Appendix.

Change in accounting policy – new and revised accounting standards

4. Where an entity has changed any of its accounting policies, either as a result of a new or revised accounting standard or voluntarily, it must explain the change in its notes. Additional disclosures are required where a policy is changed retrospectively, see note 26 for further information. [IAS 8.28]

5. New or revised accounting standards and interpretations only need to be disclosed if they resulted in a change in accounting policy which had an impact in the current year or could impact on future periods. There is no need to disclose pronouncements that did not have any impact on the entity’s accounting policies and amounts recognised in the financial statements. [IAS 8.28]

6. For the purpose of this edition, it is assumed that RePort Co. PLC did not have to make any changes to its accounting policies, as it is not affected by the interest rate benchmark reforms, and the other amendments summarised in Appendix D are only clarifications that did not require any changes. However, this assumption will not necessarily apply to all entities. Where there has been a change in policy, this will need to be explained, see note 26 for further information.

Read more

Option valuation models

Option valuation models

Option valuation models use mathematical techniques to identify a range of possible future share prices at the exercise date. From these possible future share prices, the pay-off of an option can be calculated. These intrinsic values at exercise are then probability-weighted and discounted to their present value to estimate the fair value of the option at the grant date.

This narrative is part of the IFRS 2 series, look here.

Model selection

There are three main models used to value options:

  • closed-form models: e.g. the BSM model;
  • lattice models; and
  • simulation models: e.g. Monte Carlo models.

These models generally result in very similar values if the same assumptions are used. However, certain models may be more restrictive than others – e.g. in terms of the different pay-offs that can be considered or assumptions that can be incorporated.

For example, a BSM model incorporates early exercise behaviour by using an expected term assumption that is shorter than the contractual life, whereas a lattice model or Monte Carlo model can incorporate more complex early exercise behaviour.

Simple model explanation

The approach followed in, for example, a lattice model illustrates the principles used in an option valuation model in a simplified manner.

Read more

Disclosure non-financial assets and liabilities example

Disclosure non-financial assets and liabilities example

The guidance for this disclosure example is provided here.

8 Non-financial assets and liabilities

This note provides information about the group’s non-financial assets and liabilities, including:

  • specific information about each type of non-financial asset and non-financial liability
    • property, plant and equipment (note 8(a))
    • leases (note 8(b))
    • investment properties (note 8(c))
    • intangible assets (note 8(d))
    • deferred tax balances (note 8(e))
    • inventories (note 8(f))
    • other assets, including assets classified as held for sale (note 8(g))
    • employee benefit obligations (note 8(h))
    • provisions (note 8(i))
  • accounting policies
  • information about determining the fair value of the assets and liabilities, including judgements and estimation uncertainty involved (note 8(j)).

8(a) Property, plant and equipment

Amounts in CU’000

Freehold land

Buildings

Furniture, fittings and equipment

Machinery and vehicles

Assets under construction

Total

At 1 January 2019

Cost or fair value

11,350

28,050

27,510

70,860

137,770

Accumulated depreciation

-7,600

-37,025

-44,625

Net carrying amount

11,350

28,050

19,910

33,835

93,145

Movements in 2019

Exchange differences

-43

-150

-193

Revaluation surplus

2,700

3,140

5,840

Additions

2,874

1,490

2,940

4,198

3,100

14,602

Assets classified as held for sale and other disposals

-424

-525

-2,215

3,164

Depreciation charge

-1,540

-2,030

-4,580

8,150

Closing net carrying amount

16,500

31,140

20,252

31,088

3,100

102,080

At 31 December 2019

Cost or fair value

16,500

31,140

29,882

72,693

3,100

153,315

Accumulated depreciation

-9,630

-41,605

-51,235

Net carrying amount

16,500

31,140

20,252

31,088

3,100

102,080

Movements in 2020

Exchange differences

-230

-570

-800

Revaluation surplus

3,320

3,923

7,243

Acquisition of subsidiary

800

3,400

1,890

5,720

11,810

Additions

2,500

2,682

5,313

11,972

3,450

25,917

Assets classified as held for sale and other disposals

-550

-5,985

-1,680

-8,215

Transfers

950

2,150

-3,100

Depreciation charge

-1,750

-2,340

-4,380

-8,470

Impairment loss (ii)

-465

-30

-180

-675

Closing net carrying amount

22,570

38,930

19,820

44,120

3,450

128,890

At 31 December 2020

Cost or fair value

22,570

38,930

31,790

90,285

3,450

187,025

Accumulated depreciation

-11,970

-46,165

-58,135

Net carrying amount

22,570

38,930

19,820

44,120

3,450

128,890

(i) Non-current assets pledged as security

Refer to note 24 for information on non-current assets pledged as security by the group.

(ii) Impairment loss and compensation

The impairment loss relates to assets that were damaged by a fire – refer to note 4(b) for details. The whole amount was recognised as administrative expense in profit or loss, as there was no amount included in the asset revaluation surplus relating to the relevant assets. [IAS 36.130(a)]

Read more

Example Disclosure financial instruments

Example Disclosure financial instruments

The guidance for this example disclosure financial instruments is found here.

7 Financial assets and financial liabilities

This note provides information about the group’s financial instruments, including:

  • an overview of all financial instruments held by the group
  • specific information about each type of financial instrument
  • accounting policies
  • information about determining the fair value of the instruments, including judgements and estimation uncertainty involved.

The group holds the following financial instruments: [IFRS 7.8]

Amounts in CU’000

Notes

2020

2019

Financial assets

Financial assets at amortised cost

– Trade receivables

7(a)

15,662

8,220

– Other financial assets at amortised cost

7(b)

4,598

3,471

– Cash and cash equivalents

7(e)

55,083

30,299

Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI)

7(c)

6,782

7,148

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss (FVPL)

7(d)

13,690

11,895

Derivative financial instruments

– Used for hedging

12(a)

2,162

2,129

97,975

63,162

Example Disclosure financial instruments

Financial liabilities

Liabilities at amortised cost

– Trade and other payables1

7(f)

13,700

10,281

– Borrowings

7(g)

97,515

84,595

– Lease liabilities

8(b)

11,501

11,291

Derivative financial instruments

– Used for hedging

12(a)

766

777

Held for trading at FVPL

12(a)

610

621

124,092

107,565

The group’s exposure to various risks associated with the financial instruments is discussed in note 12. The maximum exposure to credit risk at the end of the reporting period is the carrying amount of each class of financial assets mentioned above. [IFRS 7.36(a), IFRS 7.31, IFRS 7.34(c)]

Read more

Convertible instruments in EPS calculations – 2 good to read

Convertible instruments in EPS calculations

Convertible instruments are instruments other than stand-alone options that by their terms may be converted in whole or in part into the ordinary shares of an entity, such as convertible bonds or convertible preference shares.

This narrative builds on the basic principles introduced in EPS or earnings per share, and sets out the specific basic and diluted EPS implications of the following types of instrument(s).

If these instruments fall in the scope of IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation, then they can contain a derivative recognised at fair value through profit or loss, a financial liability and/or equity components, depending on their terms. For example, a bond with an embedded option to convert it into ordinary shares of the issuer is a compound instrument, containing a financial liability and an equity component, if the conversion option is classified as equity. [IAS 32.26–32]

Although this is less common, a convertible instrument may fall in the scope of IFRS 2 Share-based Payment if it is issued in exchange for goods or services. In this case, the convertible instrument is generally regarded as a share-based payment with a choice of settlement. If the entity has the settlement choice, then the instrument is classified as either equity-settled or cash-settled, depending on whether the entity has a present obligation to settle in cash. If the holder has the settlement choice, then the instrument is classified as a compound instrument. [IFRS 2.34–43]

Read more

Written put options and forwards for EPS calculations

Written put options and forwards

Written puts and forwards, as discussed in this narrative, are those that may require an entity to purchase its ordinary shares. Typically, these instruments are in the scope of IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation.

This narrative builds on the basic principles introduced in EPS or earnings per share, and sets out the specific basic and diluted EPS implications of the following types of instrument(s).

Under IAS 32, a written put or forward that contains an obligation for an entity to purchase its own ordinary shares in cash or other financial assets generally gives rise to a financial liability for the present value of the redemption amount. Subsequent to initial recognition, the liability is measured in accordance with IFRS 9 Financial instruments. [IAS 32.23]

This narrative covers written put options over an entity’s own shares. For additional considerations about written put options over NCI in the consolidated financial statements of the parent entity, see Written puts over NCI.

EPS implications

Generally, in general shares that are subject to written puts or forwards are not regarded as outstanding in basic EPS but do impact diluted EPS. Understanding the accounting for these instruments is also relevant, because it determines whether their assumed conversion would have a consequential effect on profit or loss.

Read more

IAS 33 EPS Impact of share-based payments

EPS Impact of share-based payments

Because share-based payments are common and they impact EPS, it is important to understand how IFRS 2 interacts with IAS 33. Accordingly, this narrative starts with an alternative IFRS 2 perspective and discusses the EPS implications of each type of arrangement under IFRS 2.

This narrative builds on the basic principles introduced in EPS or earnings per share, and sets out the specific basic and diluted EPS implications of the following types of instrument(s).

For details on the specific EPS implications of particular types of instrument, this chapter may need to be read in conjunction with the chapter on those specific instruments. For example, for a number of the instruments described in other chapters, the treasury share method is used in calculating diluted EPS. The general principles underlying the treasury share method are explained in detail in here, and the additional implications of applying the treasury share method to share-based payment instruments are further explained in 1.3 below.

Simply put, share-based payments are generally transactions in which an entity acquires goods or services (including employee services) in exchange for its (or another group entity’s) equity instruments or a liability that is based on the price or value of its (or another group entity’s) equity instruments. There are three main factors to be considered in assessing how a share-based payment will affect EPS.

IFRS 2 Conditions

Analysis

Settlement alternatives that drive the classification as equity- or cash-settled share-based payments under IFRS 2

They determine whether and how EPS is affected – e.g. if a share-based payment is a POS.

See 1 below

Vesting conditions

They impact how a share-based payment is dealt with in EPS – e.g. as an option or as a contingently issuable share.

See 2 below

Form of the instrument

It determines which other considerations might be necessary to understand the EPS implications – e.g. dividend entitlements for non-vested shares or exercise prices for options.

See 2 below

1. IFRS 2 Settlement alternatives

Read more

Contingently issuable POSs

Contingently issuable POSs

Contingently issuable POSs are not specifically defined in IAS 33, but they are closely related to contingently issuable ordinary shares (see Other contingencies in EPS and Contingently issued ordinary shares). These are POSs that are issuable for little or no cash or other consideration on the satisfaction of specified conditions. An example is a contingently issuable convertible instrument. [IAS 33.57]

This narrative builds on the basic principles introduced in EPS or earnings per share, and sets out the specific basic and diluted EPS implications of the following types of instrument(s).

EPS implications

Generally, by their nature contingently issuable POSs do not impact basic EPS. However, these instruments generally do impact diluted EPS and, similar to contingently issuable ordinary shares, their impact depends on the extent to which the specified conditions are met at the reporting date.

Potential impact on basic EPS

Potential impact on diluted EPS

The numerator is not affected, the denominator might or might not be affected.

The numerator might or might not be affected, the denominator is affected.

By their nature, contingently issuable POSs are generally ignored in basic EPS. This is because, on satisfying the specified conditions, POSs – as opposed to ordinary shares – will be issued, and these would not generally result in outstanding ordinary shares until they are exercised or otherwise converted. However, if any options that are contingently issuable can be exercised immediately for little or no further consideration, then the resulting options are included in the denominator from the vesting date (see EPS Implications).

IAS 33 prescribes a two-step approach for determining whether a contingently issuable POS is included in diluted EPS. [IAS 33.57]

Step i. Should the contingently issuable POS be assumed to be issuable?

This is the same assessment as that for contingently issuable ordinary shares (see EPS Implications and How to apply the test for different conditions in a contingent share agreement) – i.e. if the reporting date were the end of the contingency period, then would the POS be issuable? If the instrument passes the test in Step (i), then Step (ii) is applied.

Step ii. What is the impact on diluted EPS?

This is different from the requirements for contingently issuable ordinary shares. As opposed to including in the denominator the number of ordinary shares that would be issuable, the impact is determined based on the relevant guidance in IAS 33 for the type of POS in question – that is:

Dilutive or anti-dilutive?

Read more

Ordinary shares issued and EPS

Ordinary shares issued and EPS

Ordinary shares issued and EPS summarises the effects of three events involving share issued on EPS calculations including comprehensive examples:

Ordinary shares issued to settle liabilities

This chapter deals with ordinary shares issued to fully or partially extinguish a financial or non-financial liability, as a result of a renegotiation of the terms of the liabilities.

This chapter does not deal with:

EPS implications

Generally, ordinary shares issued to settle liabilities impact only basic EPS.

Read more

Preference shares in EPS Calculations

Preference shares in EPS Calculations

Preference shares may in accordance with IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation be classified as a whole or by their component parts into a financial liability and/or an equity instrument, depending on their terms. They may be convertible into ordinary shares.

This narrative builds on the basic principles introduced in EPS or earnings per share, and sets out the specific basic and diluted EPS implications of the following types of instrument(s).

An entity needs to consider whether equity-classified preference shares are a class of ordinary shares. If the entity has more than one class of ordinary shares, then it is required to present EPS for each class. Ordinary shares of the same ‘class’ are those shares that have the same right to receive dividends or otherwise share in the profit for the period. Additional considerations for classes of ordinary shares are set out below in classes of ordinary shares. [IAS 33.5–6]

EPS implications

Generally, how preference shares are dealt with in EPS depends on their accounting classification as liabilities or equity instruments, and whether they are convertible into ordinary shares.

Preference shares in EPS Calculations

Potential impact on basic EPS

Potential impact on diluted EPS

The numerator might or might not be affected and the denominator is not affected.

The numerator and the denominator might or might not be affected.

Preference shares that are wholly classified as liabilities under IAS 32 are not ordinary shares. The returns to the holders of these shares – e.g. post-tax amounts of preference dividends – have generally been recognised in profit or loss and therefore no further adjustment to the numerator is necessary. [IAS 33.13]

For preference shares that are wholly or partly classified as equity instruments under IAS 32, the numerator is adjusted for any returns to the holders of these shares, which include the post-tax amounts of preference dividends and any differences arising on settlement. For additional considerations and examples of adjustments for equity-classified preference shares in basic EPS. [IAS 33.12]

In addition, separate disclosure of EPS amounts is required for equity-classified preference shares that form a separate class of ordinary shares. [IAS 33.66]

Preference shares that are convertible into ordinary shares, other than those that are mandatorily convertible, are POSs (see Convertible instruments).

For equity-classified convertible preference shares, the potential adjustment:

  • to the numerator includes the returns to the holders of these shares adjusted in the calculation of basic EPS (see left); and
  • to the denominator is based on the additional ordinary shares resulting from the assumed conversion.

Conversion is assumed to have occurred at the beginning of the period (or, if later, the date of issuance of the convertible preference shares).

For liability-classified convertible preference shares, the potential adjustment:

  • to the numerator includes the post-tax amount of any dividends and other consequential changes in income or expense that would result from the assumed conversion; and
  • to the denominator is based on the additional ordinary shares resulting from the assumed conversion.

Conversion is assumed to have occurred at the beginning of the period (or, if later, the date of issuance of the convertible preference shares). For an example of adjustments for convertible instruments containing a liability component, see contracts settled in shares or cash.

Dilutive or anti-dilutive?

Generally, a convertible preference share is anti-dilutive whenever the amount of the dividend on such shares declared in or accumulated for the current period and any other required adjustment to the numerator per ordinary share obtainable on conversion exceeds basic EPS from continuing operations. [IAS 33.50]

Classes of ordinary shares

If an entity has more classes of ordinary shares, then EPS is disclosed for each class of ordinary shares that has a different right to share in the profit for the period. Therefore, for an entity that applies IAS 33, it is important to identify which of the instruments in issue are ordinary shares and to determine if there is more than one class of ordinary shares. (IAS 33.66)

IAS 33 defines an ‘ordinary share’ as ‘an equity instrument that is subordinate to all other classes of equity instruments’. It also explains that ordinary shares participate in profit for the period only after other types of shares such as preference shares have participated, and that ordinary shares of the same class are those shares that have the same right to receive dividends or otherwise share in the profit for the period. (IAS 33.5–6)

If an entity has shares with different rights, then it considers whether all of the shares are in fact ordinary shares. Consider the following contrasting examples.

Case – Two classes of ordinary shares

Company X has two classes of shares, A and B. The holders of class B shares are entitled to dividends equal to 50% of any dividends declared on the class A shares, but the shares are otherwise identical to class A shares. Both classes are subordinate to all other classes of equity instruments with respect to participation in profit.

In this case, X concludes that both class A and class B shares are ordinary shares despite the difference in entitlement to dividends. Disclosure of separate EPS amounts is therefore required for both class A and class B ordinary shares.

In general, an entity is not required to present separate EPS information for participating preference shares that are not considered to be a separate class of ordinary shares.

Case – Participating preference shares that are not ordinary shares

Company C has two classes of shares, X and Y. Shareholders of class X are entitled to a fixed dividend per share and have the right to participate in any additional dividends declared. The class Y shareholders participate equally with class X shareholders with respect to the additional dividends only.

In this example, C concludes that class X shares are not considered to be ordinary, because the fixed entitlement creates a preference over the class Y shares, and the class Y shareholders are subordinate to the class X shareholders. This is even if both classes participate equally in the residual assets of C on dissolution.

The class Y shares are the only class of ordinary shares, and therefore the only class of shares for which disclosure of EPS information is required. However, the participating rights of each class of these shares should be considered in determining earnings attributable to ordinary shareholders.

In general, puttable instruments that qualify for equity classification instead of financial liability classification under IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation are not ordinary shares for the purposes of IAS 33. We believe that it is not appropriate to apply by analogy the limited scope exemption under IAS 32 for EPS calculation purposes. (IAS 32.16A–16F)

The EPS presentation is not required for, or as a result of the existence of, such instruments. However, when determining the earnings that are attributable to the ordinary shareholders, the terms of these instruments should be evaluated to determine if they are participating instruments.

Annualreporting provides financial reporting narratives using IFRS keywords and terminology for free to students and others interested in financial reporting. The information provided on this website is for general information and educational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for professional advice. Use at your own risk. Annualreporting is an independent website and it is not affiliated with, endorsed by, or in any other way associated with the IFRS Foundation. For official information concerning IFRS Standards, visit IFRS.org or the local representative in your jurisdiction.

Preference shares in EPS CalculationsPreference shares in EPS Calculations Preference shares in EPS Calculations Preference shares in EPS Calculations Preference shares in EPS Calculations Preference shares in EPS Calculations Preference shares in EPS Calculations Preference shares in EPS Calculations Preference shares in EPS Calculations

Preference shares in EPS Calculations