Commodity finance IFRS the 6 best examples

Commodity finance IFRS the 6 best examples – A key issue is whether the contract to deliver a non-financial item (the commodity) falls within the scope of IFRS 9 Financial Instruments. Although IFRS 9 would appear to apply only to financial assets and financial liabilities, certain contracts for non-financial items are also within its scope.

The scope of IFRS 9

In determining whether the transaction is within the scope of IFRS 9, key guidance is set out in IFRS 9 2.4. IFRS 9 2.4 notes that

This Standard shall be applied to those contracts to buy or sell a non-financial item that can be settled net in cash or in another financial instrument, or by exchanging financial instruments, Read more

Embedded derivatives Equity kicker

Embedded derivatives Equity kicker – A more specific type of embedded derivative that is often found in practice relates to a type of funding provided by venture capital entities is the equity kicker. It is many times part of a sales of a part of a business of a listed company, financed by the venture capital entity. The intention is to prepare the separated business for an IPO within 3 – 5 years after this separation. Embedded derivatives Equity kicker

Example Mezzanine financing Equity kicker

A venture capitalist provides a subordinated loan, that in addition to interest and repayment of principal, contains terms that entitle the venture capitalist to receive shares of the borrower (separated business) free of charge or … Read more

IFRS 9 Inflation as a risk component

Inflation as a risk component – Under IAS 39, inflation cannot be designated as a hedged risk component for financial instruments, unless the inflation risk component is contractually specified. For non-financial instruments, inflation risk cannot be designated under IAS 39 as a risk component at all. Inflation as a risk component

Highlight – For financial instruments, IFRS 9 opens the door for designating a non-contractually specified inflation component as a hedged risk component – but only in limited circumstances. For non-financial instruments, the inflation component will be eligible for designation as the hedged item in a hedging relationship provided that it is separately identifiable and reliably measurable. Inflation as a risk component

For financial instruments, IFRS 9 introduces a rebuttable Read more

IFRS 9 Own use scope exemption

IFRS 9 Own use scope exemption

A reduction in the amount of funding available from equity markets, together with difficulty in obtaining loan finance, have meant that a number of developers and producers in the extractives industry have looked to other ways of obtaining finance. An increasingly common approach is to enter into a commodity loan under which a lender advances funds which,instead of being repaid in cash, may be repaid by the delivery of a quantity of a commodity during a specific period. These arrangements have become particularly common when they involve a commodity such as gold, which is traded on an active market. IFRS 9 Own use scope exemption

Key considerations in the application of the IFRS 9

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Hedged item Risk components Market structure

Hedged item Risk components Market structure – Q: What is the relationship between a risk component in an eligible hedged component of a non-financial item and the market structure in which the hedging activity takes place? Hedged item Risk components Market structure

Considerations: Hedged item Risk components Market structure
To be eligible for designation as a hedged item, a risk component must be a separately identifiable component, and the changes in cash flows or fair value of the item attributable to a change in that component must be reliably measurable. (IFRS 9 paragraph B6.3.8). Hedged item Risk components Market structure

IFRS 9 requires the qualifying criteria for an eligible risk component to be assessed in the context of Read more

Hedged item Risk components Separately identified

Hedged item Risk components Separately identified – Q: What is the necessary evidence to document that changes in cash flows or fair value attributable to changes in a hedged component are separately identifiable? Does a risk component that is an input in the manufacturing process of a non-financial item suffice?

Considerations: Hedged item Risk components Separately identified

To be eligible for designation as a hedged item, a risk component must be a separately identifiable component, and the changes in cash flows or fair value of the item attributable to change in that component must be reliably measurable (IFRS 9 paragraph B6.3.8). Hedged item Risk components Separately identified

An entity wishes to hedge a non-contractually specified risk component of … Read more

Hedged item Risk components Reliable measurement

Hedged item Risk components Reliable measurement – Q: What evidences that changes in cash flows or fair value attributable to changes in a hedged component are reliably measurable?

Considerations: Hedged item Risk components Reliable measurement

To be eligible for designation as a hedged item, a risk component must be a separately identifiable component, and the changes in cash flows or fair value of the item attributable to change in that component must be reliably measurable (IFRS 9 paragraph B6.3.8). Hedged item Risk components Reliable measurement

Company A wishes to designate a risk component as a hedged item. How should company A assess if the ‘reliably measurable’ criterion is met?

Consequential Explanation and Reasoning: Hedged item Risk components Reliable Read more

Hedged item Cash flow hedges Future interest flows

Hedged item Cash flow hedges Future interest flows – Q: Does IFRS 9 allow the following cash flow hedge designations of future interest flows?

Considerations:
Consider the following cases. Note: In all scenarios both the swap and the hedged debt are denominated in Company A’s functional currency.

Case 1
Company A enters into a forward starting swap in which it pays a fixed rate and Hedged item Cash flow hedges Future interest flows receives a floating interest rate to hedge a highly probable forecast debt issuance. The date of issuance is known, but it is not known whether the debt will be at fixed– or floating– rates. Company A designates the swap as a cash flow hedge of the variability in cash flows of the debt to be … Read more

Hedging of a highly probable debt issuance

Hedging of a highly probable debt issuance – Q: Does IFRS 9 allow a highly probable forecast foreign currency debt issuance as eligible as a hedged item in a cash flow hedge of interest rate risk if the currency of issuance is not yet known?

Considerations:

At 1 January 200X, entity A, whose functional currency is the Euro, intends to issue a variable interest rate debt in six months’ time in order to finance future activities. Depending on the market conditions existing at 1 July 200X, entity A will decide Hedging of a highly probable debt issuance whether the debt is issued in Euros or in US dollars. If the debt is issued in US dollars, then at the debt issuance date (1 July 200X) entity A … Read more

Cross-currency swap

Cross-currency swap – In a currency swap operation, also known as a cross-currency swap, the parties involved agree under contract to exchange the following: the principal amount of a loan in one currency and the interest applicable on it during a specified period of time for a corresponding amount and applicable interest in a second currency.

  • Cross-currency swaps are used to lock in exchange rates for set periods of time. Cross-currency swap
  • Interest rates can be fixed, variable, or a mix of both. Cross-currency swap
  • These instruments trade OTC, and can thus be customized by the parties involved. Cross-currency swap
  • While the exchange rate is locked in, there is still opportunity costs/gains as the exchange rate will likely change.
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