Control of an economic resource

Control of an economic resource – This is all about: A present economic resource controlled by the entity as a result of past events.

Two very simple examples to start with:

Pat Co has purchased a patent for $20,000. The patent gives the company sole use of a particular manufacturing process which will save $3,000 a year for the next five years.

This is an asset, albeit an intangible one. There is a past event, control and future economic benefit (through cost savings).

Baldwin Co (the company) paid Don Brennan $10,000 to set up a car repair shop, on condition that priority treatment is given to cars from the company’s fleet.

This cannot be classified as an asset. Baldwin Co

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Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies

Get the requirements for properly disclosing the accounting policies to provide the users of your financial statements with useful financial data, in the common language prescribed in the world’s most widely used standards for financial reporting, the IFRS Standards. First there is a section providing guidance on what the requirements are, followed by a comprehensive example, easy to tailor to the specific needs of your company.Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies guidance

Whether to disclose an accounting policy

1. In deciding whether a particular accounting policy should be disclosed, management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in the reported financial performance and financial position. Disclosure of particular accounting policies is especially useful to users where those policies are selected from alternatives allowed in IFRS. [IAS 1.119]

2. Some IFRSs specifically require disclosure of particular accounting policies, including choices made by management between different policies they allow. For example, IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment requires disclosure of the measurement bases used for classes of property, plant and equipment and IFRS 3 Business Combinations requires disclosure of the measurement basis used for non-controlling interest acquired during the period.

3. In this guidance, policies are disclosed that are specific to the entity and relevant for an understanding of individual line items in the financial statements, together with the notes for those line items. Other, more general policies are disclosed in the note 25 in the example below. Where permitted by local requirements, entities could consider moving these non-entity-specific policies into an Appendix.

Change in accounting policy – new and revised accounting standards

4. Where an entity has changed any of its accounting policies, either as a result of a new or revised accounting standard or voluntarily, it must explain the change in its notes. Additional disclosures are required where a policy is changed retrospectively, see note 26 for further information. [IAS 8.28]

5. New or revised accounting standards and interpretations only need to be disclosed if they resulted in a change in accounting policy which had an impact in the current year or could impact on future periods. There is no need to disclose pronouncements that did not have any impact on the entity’s accounting policies and amounts recognised in the financial statements. [IAS 8.28]

6. For the purpose of this edition, it is assumed that RePort Co. PLC did not have to make any changes to its accounting policies, as it is not affected by the interest rate benchmark reforms, and the other amendments summarised in Appendix D are only clarifications that did not require any changes. However, this assumption will not necessarily apply to all entities. Where there has been a change in policy, this will need to be explained, see note 26 for further information.

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Accounting for mergers – Best 2 Read

Accounting for mergers

Mergers and acquisitions (business combinations) can have a fundamental impact on the acquirer’s operations, resources and strategies. For most entities such transactions are infrequent, and each is unique. IFRS 3 ‘Business Combinations’ contains the requirements for accounting for mergers, which are challenging in practice.

This narrative provides a high-level overview of IFRS 3 and explains the key steps in accounting for business combinations in accordance with this Standard. It also highlights some practical application issues dealing with:

  • how to avoid unintended accounting consequences when bringing two businesses together, and
  • deal terms and what effect they can have on accounting for business combinations.

The acquisition method in accounting for mergers

IFRS 3 establishes the accounting and reporting requirements (known as ‘the acquisition method’) for the acquirer in a business combination. The key steps in applying the acquisition method are summarised below:

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Revenue definition

Revenue definition

Revenue is defined in IFRS 15 as: ‘Income arising in the course of an entity’s ordinary activities‘.

IFRS 15 establishes a single and comprehensive framework which sets out how much revenue is to be recognised, and when. The core principle is that a vendor should recognise revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the vendor expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.

The application of the core principle in IFRS 15 is carried out in five steps:

revenue definition

The five-step model is applied to individual contracts. However, as a practical expedient, IFRS 15 permits an entity to apply the model to a portfolio of contracts (or performance obligations) with similar characteristics if the entity reasonably expects that the effects would not differ materially from applying it to individual contracts.

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Definition of provision – IAS 37 Complete easy read

Definition of provision

The definition of provision is key to IAS 37. A provision is a liability of uncertain timing or amount, meaning that there is some question over either how much will be paid or when this will be paid. In the past, these uncertainties may have been exploited by companies trying to ‘smooth profits’ in order to achieve the results they believe that their various stakeholder may want.

As part of the attempt of IASB to further restrict this type of earnings management within IFRSs, IASB adopted an update of IAS 37 in April 2001 originating from September 1998. IAS 37 was further updated for Onerous contracts – Costs of fulfilling a contract in May 2020.

IAS 37: ‘Onerous Contracts – Cost of Fulfilling a Contract’

lAS 37 defines an onerous contract as one in which the unavoidable costs of meeting the entity’s obligations exceed the economic benefits to be received under that contract. Unavoidable costs are the lower of the net cost of exiting the contract and the costs to fulfil the contract. The amendment clarifies the meaning of ‘costs to fulfil a contract’.

The amendment explains that the direct cost of fulfilling a contract comprises:

  • the incremental costs of fulfilling that contract (for example, direct labour and materials); and
  • an allocation of other costs that relate directly to fulfilling contracts (for example, an allocation ofthe depreciation charge for an item of PP&E used to fulfil the contract).

The amendment also clarifies that, before a separate provision for an onerous contract is established, an entity recognises any impairment loss that has occurred on assets used in fulfilling the contract, rather than on assets dedicated to that contract.

The amendment could result in the recognition of more onerous contract provisions, because previously some entities only included incremental costs in the costs to fulfil a contract.

The key definition of provision

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Convertible instruments in EPS calculations – 2 good to read

Convertible instruments in EPS calculations

Convertible instruments are instruments other than stand-alone options that by their terms may be converted in whole or in part into the ordinary shares of an entity, such as convertible bonds or convertible preference shares.

This narrative builds on the basic principles introduced in EPS or earnings per share, and sets out the specific basic and diluted EPS implications of the following types of instrument(s).

If these instruments fall in the scope of IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation, then they can contain a derivative recognised at fair value through profit or loss, a financial liability and/or equity components, depending on their terms. For example, a bond with an embedded option to convert it into ordinary shares of the issuer is a compound instrument, containing a financial liability and an equity component, if the conversion option is classified as equity. [IAS 32.26–32]

Although this is less common, a convertible instrument may fall in the scope of IFRS 2 Share-based Payment if it is issued in exchange for goods or services. In this case, the convertible instrument is generally regarded as a share-based payment with a choice of settlement. If the entity has the settlement choice, then the instrument is classified as either equity-settled or cash-settled, depending on whether the entity has a present obligation to settle in cash. If the holder has the settlement choice, then the instrument is classified as a compound instrument. [IFRS 2.34–43]

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IAS 33 EPS Impact of share-based payments

EPS Impact of share-based payments

Because share-based payments are common and they impact EPS, it is important to understand how IFRS 2 interacts with IAS 33. Accordingly, this narrative starts with an alternative IFRS 2 perspective and discusses the EPS implications of each type of arrangement under IFRS 2.

This narrative builds on the basic principles introduced in EPS or earnings per share, and sets out the specific basic and diluted EPS implications of the following types of instrument(s).

For details on the specific EPS implications of particular types of instrument, this chapter may need to be read in conjunction with the chapter on those specific instruments. For example, for a number of the instruments described in other chapters, the treasury share method is used in calculating diluted EPS. The general principles underlying the treasury share method are explained in detail in here, and the additional implications of applying the treasury share method to share-based payment instruments are further explained in 1.3 below.

Simply put, share-based payments are generally transactions in which an entity acquires goods or services (including employee services) in exchange for its (or another group entity’s) equity instruments or a liability that is based on the price or value of its (or another group entity’s) equity instruments. There are three main factors to be considered in assessing how a share-based payment will affect EPS.

IFRS 2 Conditions

Analysis

Settlement alternatives that drive the classification as equity- or cash-settled share-based payments under IFRS 2

They determine whether and how EPS is affected – e.g. if a share-based payment is a POS.

See 1 below

Vesting conditions

They impact how a share-based payment is dealt with in EPS – e.g. as an option or as a contingently issuable share.

See 2 below

Form of the instrument

It determines which other considerations might be necessary to understand the EPS implications – e.g. dividend entitlements for non-vested shares or exercise prices for options.

See 2 below

1. IFRS 2 Settlement alternatives

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Contracts settled in shares or cash for IAS 33 EPS calculations

Contracts settled in shares or cash

Contracts that may be settled in shares or in cash deals with contracts that contain settlement alternatives at the issuing entity’s or the holder’s option. An example of such contracts is a share warrant that can be settled either gross in ordinary shares or net in cash.

If the contract falls under IFRS 2 Share-based Payment, then the classification depends on which party holds the settlement choice. If the issuing entity has that choice, then the contract is classified wholly as either equity-settled or cash-settled, depending on whether the entity has a present obligation to settle in cash. If the counterparty has the choice of settlement, then the contract is classified as a compound instrument. [IFRS 2.34–43]

If such a contract falls in the scope of IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation, then it can contain a derivative, a liability and/or an equity component, depending on its terms. For example, a conversion option in a convertible bond that on exercise can be settled in shares or net in cash would generally mean that the whole instrument is a liability. [IAS 32.26–27, IAS 33.IE8]

This narrative covers the EPS implications of contracts that may be settled in shares or in cash in general. Additional considerations in the context of specific instruments are set out in the following chapters:

  • instruments under share-based payment arrangements: see Chapter 5.17; and
  • convertible instruments: see Chapter 5.11.

EPS implications

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Provisions and contingent liabilities – 2 know it all!

Provisions and contingent liabilities

A provision shall be recognised when: Provisions and contingent liabilities

  1. an entity has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event;Provisions and contingent liabilities
  2. it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; and
  3. a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.

If these conditions are not met, no provision shall be recognised. But a disclosure for a contingent liability could be required (see below).

This is what it is about, make your decision supportable!

Provisions are liabilities of uncertain timing or amount. This uncertainty makes them different from accruals or payables, where the timing and amount are known or … Read more