IFRS 18 Presentation and Disclosure in Financial Statements – Best read

IFRS 18 Presentation and Disclosure in Financial Statements

The IASB’s newly issued standard IFRS 18 mainly deals with the presentation of the income statement, balance sheet and certain footnotes. At the same time, certain aspects of the cash flow statement are modified. IFRS 18 does not change the recognition and measurement of the components of financial statements; therefore, the amounts reported as shareholders’ equity and net income are both unchanged. However, it will have a significant impact on the presentation and disaggregation of what is reported (primarily in the income statement and footnotes), including what subtotals companies must provide and how these are defined.

There are five main areas where we think the new standard will help investors as users of IFRS Financial Statements:IFRS 18 Presentation and Disclosure in Financial Statements

Operating–Investing–Financing classification

IFRS 18 aims to establishes a structured statement of profit or loss by implementing the following measures:

  • It introduces three defined categories for income and expenses: operating, investing, and financing.
    • Operating – income/expenses resulting from the company’s main business operations.
    • Investingincome/expenses from:
      • investments in associates, joint ventures and unconsolidated subsidiaries;
      • cash and cash equivalents;
      • assets that generate a return individually and largely independently (e.g. rental income from investment properties).
    • Financing – consisting of:
      • income/expenses from liabilities related to raising finance only (e.g. interest expense on borrowings); and
      • interest income/expenses and effects of changes in interest rates from other liabilities (e.g. interest expense on lease liabilities).
  • It mandates to present new defined totals and subtotals, including operating profit, thereby enhancing the clarity and consistency of financial reporting.

Entities primarily engaged in investing in assets or providing finance to customers are subject to specific categorisation requirements. This entails that additional income and expense items, which would typically be classified as investing or financing activities, are instead categorised under operating activities. Consequently, operating profit reflects the outcomes of an entity’s core business operations. Identifying the main business activity involves exercising judgment based on factual circumstances.

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IFRS 16 Lessor accounting

IFRS 16 Lessor accounting

Lessors continue to classify leases as finance or operating leases.

1. Lessor accounting model

The lessor follows a dual accounting approach for lease accounting. The accounting is based on whether significant risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an underlying asset are transferred to the lessee, in which case the lease is classified as a finance lease. This is similar to the previous lease accounting requirements that applied to lessors. The lessor accounting models are also essentially unchanged from IAS 17 Leases. [IFRS 16.B53, IFRS 16.BC289]

Are the lessee and lessor accounting models consistent?

No. A key consequence of the decision to retain the IAS 17 dual accounting model for lessors is a lack of consistency with the new lessee accounting model. This can be seen in the case Lease classification below:

There are also more detailed differences. For example, lessees and lessors use the same guidance for determining the lease term and assessing whether renewal and purchase options are reasonably certain to be exercised, and termination options not reasonably certain to be exercised. However, unlike lessees, lessors do not reassess their initial assessments of lease term and whether renewal and purchase options are reasonably certain to be exercised, and termination options not reasonably certain to be exercised (see changes in the lease term in the link).

Other differences are more subtle. For example, although the definition of lease payments is similar for lessors and lessees (see lease payments in the link), the difference is the amount of residual value guarantee included in the lease payments.

  • The lessor includes the full amount (regardless of the likelihood that payment will be due) of any residual value guarantees provided to the lessor by the lessee, a party related to the lessee or a third party unrelated to the lessor that is financially capable of discharging the obligations under the guarantee.
  • The lessee includes only any amounts expected to be payable to the lessor under a residual value guarantee.

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Disclosure Related party transactions – Best complete read IAS 24

– Learn how to do it –

Disclosure Related party transactions provides a summary of IFRS reporting requirements regarding IAS 24 Related party transactions and a possible disclosure schedule. However, as this publication is a reference tool, no disclosures have been removed based on materiality. Instead, illustrative disclosures for as many common scenarios as possible have been included. Please note that the amounts disclosed in this publication are purely for illustrative purposes and may not be consistent throughout the example disclosure related party transactions.

Presentation

All of the related party information required by IAS 24 that is relevant to the Reporting entity Plc has been presented, or referred to, in one note. This is considered to be a convenient and desirable method of presentation, but there is no requirement to present the information in this manner. Compliance with the standard could also be achieved by disclosing the information in relevant notes throughout the financial statements.

Materiality

The disclosures required by IAS 24 apply to the financial statements when the information is material. According to IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements, Disclosure Related party transactionsmateriality depends on the size and nature of an item. It may be necessary to treat an item or a group of items as material because of their nature, even if they would not be judged material on the basis of the amounts involved. This may apply when transactions occur between an entity and parties who have a fiduciary responsibility in relation to that entity, such as those transactions between the entity and its key management personnel. [IAS1.7]

Key management personnel compensation

While the disclosures under paragraph 17 of IAS 24 are subject to materiality, this must be determined based on both quantitative and qualitative factors. In general, it will not be appropriate to omit the aggregate compensation disclosures based on materiality. Whether it will be possible to satisfy the disclosure by reference to another document, such as a remuneration report, will depend on local regulation. IAS 24 itself does not specifically permit such cross-referencing.

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Best guide IFRS 16 Lessor modifications

Best guide IFRS 16 Lessor modifications

summarises the accounting for lessor modifications that depends on – and may change – the lease classification.

Unlike IAS 17 Leases, the new standard provides detailed guidance on the lessor accounting for lease modifications, with separate guidance for modifications to finance leases and operating leases.

However, additional complexities arise for modifications of a finance lease receivable not accounted for as a separate lease for which, under paragraph 80(b) of IFRS 16, the lessor applies the requirements of IFRS 9 Financial Instruments. A number of issues arise due to differences in the basic concepts between IFRS 16 and IFRS 9.

The following diagram summarises the accounting for lease modifications by a lessor.

Best guide IFRS 16 Lessor modifications

Separate lease Not a separate lease – Finance to operating Not a separate lease – Finance to finance Lessor modifications to operating expenses

* A lessee reassessment of whether it is reasonably certain to exercise an option to extend, or not to exercise a termination option, included in the original lease contract is not a lease modification

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IAS 37 Launch your Climate Risk Reporting

IAS 37 Launch your Climate Risk Reporting – In February 2020, the Governance Institute Australia published a practical guide to reporting against ASX Corporate Governance Council’s Corporate Governance Principles and Recommendation. IAS 37 Launch your Climate Risk Reporting

Recommendation 7.4 of the new ASX Corporate Governance Council’s Principles encourages entities for the first time to consider and report upon any material exposure to climate change risk. This practical new guide helps you to identify and disclose your climate change risks. IAS 37 Launch your Climate Risk Reporting

Review the guide on the Governance Institute Australia’s website. IAS 37 Launch your Climate Risk Reporting

Here is a summary: IAS 37 Launch your Climate Risk Reporting

Directors’ duties and climate change

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Comprehensive understanding IFRS 15 Disclosures

Comprehensive understanding IFRS 15 Disclosures

provides clear disclosure requirements

– which are quite detailed and increase the volume of required disclosures that entities have to include in their interim and annual financial statements. Many of the requirements in IFRS 15 involve information that entities did not previously disclose, all in all the usefulness of information in the financial statements should grow using these presentation and disclosure requirements. understanding IFRS 15 Disclosures

Tailor disclosures to the business

In practice, the nature and extent of changes to an entity’s financial statements depend on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the nature of its revenue-generating activities and the level of information it previously disclosed. Prohibitedunderstanding IFRS 15 Disclosures

Improvements of

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