Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution – The best read

Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution

Category description – Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution includes emissions that occur in the reporting year from transportation and distribution of sold products in vehicles and facilities not owned or controlled by the reporting company.

Overview – Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution

Reporting on Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution involves a comprehensive analysis of the logistical processes and operations involved in transporting goods from production facilities to end consumers. Here’s an executive overview:

  1. Scope and Definition: Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution encompasses the movement of goods from manufacturing plants or warehouses to various distribution centers, retailers, or directly to customers. It involves multiple modes of transportation such as road, rail, sea, and air, as well as associated warehousing and distribution activities.
  2. Key Components:
    • Transportation Modes: Assess the utilization of different transportation modes and their efficiency in terms of cost, speed, and reliability.
    • Distribution Network: Evaluate the design and optimization of distribution networks to ensure timely delivery and minimize costs.
    • Warehousing: Analyze the efficiency of warehousing operations in terms of inventory management, storage capacity, and order fulfillment.
    • Last-Mile Delivery: Focus on the final stage of delivery to customers, addressing challenges and strategies for improving efficiency and customer satisfaction.
  3. Performance Metrics:
    • On-Time Delivery: Measure the percentage of deliveries made according to schedule to assess reliability.
    • Transit Time: Evaluate the average time taken for goods to move through the transportation and distribution network.
    • Cost per Unit: Analyze the cost incurred per unit of goods transported, considering transportation, warehousing, and handling expenses.Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution
    • Inventory Turnover: Assess the rate at which inventory is sold and replaced, indicating efficiency in managing stock levels.
  4. Challenges and Opportunities:
    • Infrastructure: Address challenges related to transportation infrastructure, such as road congestion, port capacity, and airport efficiency.
    • Sustainability: Explore opportunities for reducing the environmental impact of transportation and distribution operations through alternative fuels, route optimization, and packaging innovations.
    • Technology Integration: Highlight the role of technology in optimizing logistics processes, including the use of IoT devices, predictive analytics, and automation to improve efficiency and visibility across the supply chain.
  5. Regulatory and Compliance:
    • Compliance with Regulations: Ensure adherence to regulations governing transportation safety, labor practices, environmental standards, and customs procedures.
    • Trade Policies: Monitor changes in trade policies and tariffs that may impact transportation costs, lead times, and supply chain resilience.
  6. Strategic Recommendations:
    • Network Optimization: Identify opportunities to streamline the transportation and distribution network to reduce costs and improve service levels.
    • Technology Investment: Recommend investments in transportation management systems (TMS), warehouse management systems (WMS), and tracking technologies to enhance visibility and control.
    • Collaboration: Encourage collaboration with transportation partners and suppliers to leverage economies of scale, share resources, and mitigate risks.
  7. Future Outlook:
    • Market Trends: Anticipate emerging trends such as e-commerce growth, omnichannel distribution, and the adoption of electric and autonomous vehicles.
    • Resilience Planning: Prepare for disruptions such as natural disasters, geopolitical tensions, and pandemics by enhancing supply chain resilience and flexibility.

In summary, reporting on Category 9 Downstream Transportation and Distribution involves assessing the efficiency, reliability, and sustainability of logistics operations while identifying opportunities for improvement and strategic investment to meet evolving market demands and challenges.

A worked example – EcoFoods Inc.

For this example, let’s consider a fictional company, “EcoFoods Inc.,” which produces organic food products and distributes them to retailers and customers across the country.

1. Scope and Definition:

EcoFoods Inc. operates a complex downstream transportation and distribution network, involving the movement of perishable organic food products from its manufacturing plants to various distribution centers and ultimately to retail outlets and consumers.

2. Key Components:

a. Transportation Modes:

EcoFoods utilizes a combination of refrigerated trucks for land transportation, as well as partnerships with shipping companies for sea transportation of bulk goods. Additionally, it employs air freight for urgent deliveries of high-value or time-sensitive products.

b. Distribution Network:

The company operates multiple distribution centers strategically located across the country to ensure efficient coverage and timely delivery. These distribution centers are equipped with temperature-controlled storage facilities to maintain the freshness and quality of the organic products.

c. Warehousing:

EcoFoods’ warehousing operations focus on efficient inventory management to minimize storage costs and ensure optimal stock levels. It employs barcode scanning and RFID technology for accurate tracking of inventory movement within its warehouses.

d. Last-Mile Delivery:

The company collaborates with local courier services and offers direct-to-customer delivery options, especially for online orders. It leverages route optimization software to ensure cost-effective and timely last-mile deliveries.

3. Performance Metrics:

a. On-Time Delivery:

EcoFoods consistently achieves an on-time delivery rate of over 95%, ensuring reliability for its retail partners and customers.

b. Transit Time:

The average transit time for products from manufacturing to retail shelves is maintained within industry standards, with continuous efforts to optimize routes and minimize lead times.

c. Cost per Unit:

The company closely monitors the cost per unit transported, including transportation, warehousing, and handling expenses, to ensure competitiveness while maintaining profitability.

d. Inventory Turnover:

EcoFoods maintains a healthy inventory turnover ratio by closely managing stock levels and implementing just-in-time inventory practices to minimize carrying costs.

4. Challenges and Opportunities:

a. Infrastructure:

EcoFoods faces challenges related to infrastructure constraints, particularly road congestion during peak hours and limited capacity at certain ports. The company explores alternative transportation routes and invests in infrastructure improvements where feasible.

b. Sustainability:

Recognizing the importance of sustainability, EcoFoods invests in hybrid and electric vehicles for its transportation fleet and implements packaging innovations to reduce environmental impact.

c. Technology Integration:

The company continuously invests in transportation management systems (TMS) and warehouse management systems (WMS) to optimize logistics operations and enhance visibility across the supply chain.

5. Regulatory and Compliance:

EcoFoods ensures compliance with food safety regulations, transportation safety standards, and environmental regulations governing its operations. It maintains robust procedures for quality control and traceability throughout the supply chain.

6. Strategic Recommendations:

a. Network Optimization:

Continuously assess and optimize the distribution network to minimize transportation costs and improve delivery efficiency, considering factors such as customer demand patterns and geographic distribution.

b. Technology Investment:

Further invest in advanced tracking and monitoring technologies to enhance real-time visibility into the supply chain, enabling proactive management of logistics operations and quicker response to disruptions.

c. Collaboration:

Strengthen partnerships with transportation providers, suppliers, and retailers to foster collaboration and streamline end-to-end supply chain processes.

7. Future Outlook:

a. Market Trends:

Anticipate and adapt to emerging market trends such as increasing demand for organic products, growth in e-commerce sales, and advancements in sustainable transportation technologies.

b. Resilience Planning:

Develop robust contingency plans to mitigate risks posed by potential disruptions, including natural disasters, geopolitical tensions, and supply chain disruptions.

By conducting comprehensive reporting and analysis across these key components, EcoFoods Inc. can effectively manage its downstream transportation and distribution operations, ensuring reliable and sustainable delivery of organic food products to its customers nationwide.

 

This category also includes emissions from retail and storage. Outbound transportation and distribution services that are purchased by the reporting company are excluded from category 9 and included in category 4 (Upstream transportation and distribution) because the reporting company purchases the service. Category 9 includes only emissions from transportation and distribution of products after the point of sale. See table 5.7 in the Scope 3 Standard for guidance in accounting for emissions from transportation and distribution in the value chain.

Emissions from downstream transportation and distribution can arise from transportation/storage of sold products in vehicles/facilities not owned by the reporting company. For example:

  • Warehouses and distribution centers
  • Retail facilities
  • Air transport
  • Rail transport
  • Road transport
  • Marine transport.

In this category, companies may include emissions from customers traveling to and from retail stores, which can be significant for companies that own or operate retail facilities. See chapter 5.6 of the Scope 3 Standard for guidance on the applicability of category 9 to final products and intermediate products sold by the reporting company. A reporting company’s scope 3 emissions from downstream transportation and distribution include the scope 1 and scope 2 emissions of transportation companies, distribution companies, retailers, and (optionally) customers.

If the reporting company sells an intermediate product, the company should report emissions from transportation and distribution of this intermediate product between the point of sale by the reporting company and either (1) the end consumer (if the eventual end use of the intermediate product is known) or (2) business customers (if the eventual end use of the intermediate product is unknown).

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Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution – The best calculation guidance

Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution

Category description – Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution includes emissions from:

  • Transportation and distribution of products purchased in the reporting year, between a company’s tier 1 suppliers1 and its own operations in vehicles not owned or operated by the reporting company (including multi-modal shipping where multiple carriers are involved in the delivery of a product, but excluding fuel and energy products)   – link to figure 7.3 in the Scope 3 Standard
  • Third-party transportation and distribution services purchased by the reporting company in the reporting year (either directly or through an intermediary), including inbound logistics, outbound logistics (e.g., of sold products), and third-party transportation and distribution between a company’s own facilities.

This guidance page for Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution serves as a companion to the Scope 3 Standard to offer companies practical guidance on calculating their scope 3 emissions. It provides information not contained in the Scope 3 Standard, such as methods for calculating GHG emissions for each of the 15 scope 3 categories, data sources, and worked examples.

Overview – Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution

Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution refer to a specific classification within greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions accounting, focusing on indirect emissions associated with the transportation and distribution of products and materials upstream in the supply chain. These emissions occur outside of a company’s operational boundaries but are essential to the production and delivery of goods and services. Here’s a comprehensive overview:

Definition and Classification:

  1. Scope 1, 2, and 3 Emissions: Greenhouse gas emissions are categorized into three scopes by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol. Scope 1 emissions are direct emissions from sources owned or controlled by the company, while Scope 2 emissions are indirect emissions from purchased electricity, heat, or steam. Scope 3 emissions encompass all other indirect emissions, including upstream and downstream activities not directly controlled by the company.
  2. Category 4 Emissions: Within Scope 3 emissions, Category 4 specifically focuses on upstream transportation and distribution. These emissions result from the transportation of raw materials, components, and products from suppliers to the company’s facilities or from one stage of production to another.

Characteristics:Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution

  1. Indirect Nature: Category 4 emissions are considered indirect emissions because they occur outside of the company’s direct operational control but are associated with its supply chain activities.
  2. Supply Chain Impact: Transportation and distribution activities are crucial components of the supply chain, influencing the efficiency, cost, and environmental impact of sourcing materials and delivering products to customers.
  3. Global Reach: Upstream transportation and distribution activities often involve complex logistics networks, including road, rail, sea, and air transport, which can span multiple regions and countries.

Examples:

  1. Raw Material Sourcing: Emissions associated with the transportation of raw materials, such as minerals, metals, agricultural products, and lumber, from extraction sites or farms to manufacturing facilities.
  2. Component Transport: Emissions from the transportation of components, parts, and sub-assemblies between suppliers, subcontractors, and assembly plants in the production process.
  3. Product Distribution: Emissions related to the distribution of finished products from manufacturing facilities to warehouses, distribution centers, retailers, or directly to consumers via various modes of transportation.
  4. Reverse Logistics: Emissions from the transportation of returned goods, recycling materials, or waste products back through the supply chain for disposal, recycling, or refurbishment.

Importance:

  1. Supply Chain Efficiency: Managing Category 4 emissions is essential for optimizing supply chain efficiency, reducing transportation costs, and minimizing environmental impact through more sustainable transportation and distribution practices.
  2. Risk Management: Addressing upstream transportation and distribution emissions helps companies mitigate risks associated with volatile fuel prices, regulatory changes, geopolitical instability, and supply chain disruptions.
  3. Carbon Footprint Reduction: By identifying opportunities to reduce emissions in upstream transportation and distribution activities, companies can lower their overall carbon footprint and contribute to climate change mitigation efforts.

Considerations:

  1. Mode Selection: Choosing the most appropriate transportation modes, such as rail, sea, or inland waterways, can help minimize emissions and reduce environmental impact compared to road or air transport.
  2. Route Optimization: Optimizing transportation routes, consolidating shipments, and improving logistics efficiency can reduce fuel consumption, emissions, and transportation costs.
  3. Collaboration with Suppliers: Collaborating with suppliers to implement sustainable transportation and distribution practices, such as using eco-friendly packaging, optimizing load sizes, and leveraging alternative fuels, can help mitigate Category 4 emissions.

Conclusion:

Category 4 Upstream Transportation and Distribution emissions represent a significant aspect of a company’s indirect emissions profile, reflecting the environmental impact associated with the movement of products and materials throughout the supply chain. By addressing these emissions and implementing sustainable transportation and distribution practices, companies can enhance supply chain efficiency, reduce costs, and minimize their environmental footprint, contributing to both environmental stewardship and long-term business sustainability.

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Category 1 Purchased Goods and Services – The best calculation guidance

Calculating Scope 3 Emissions GHG Category 1 Purchased Goods and Services

Category description – Category 1 Purchased Goods and Services includes all upstream (i.e., cradle-to-gate) emissions from the production of products purchased or acquired by the reporting company in the reporting year. Products include both goods (tangible products) and services (intangible products).

This guidance page for Category 1 Purchased Goods and Services serves as a companion to the Scope 3 Standard to offer companies practical guidance on calculating their scope 3 emissions. It provides information not contained in the Scope 3 Standard, such as methods for calculating GHG emissions for each of the 15 scope 3 categories, data sources, and worked examples.

Category 1 includes emissions from all purchased goods and services not otherwise included in the other categories of upstream scope 3 emissions (i.e., category 2 through category 8). Specific categories of upstream emissions are separately reported in category 2 through category 8 to enhance the transparency and consistency of scope 3 reports.

Emissions from the transportation of purchased products from a tier one (direct) supplier to the reporting company (in vehicles not owned or controlled by the reporting company) are accounted for in category 4 (Upstream transportation and distribution).

Companies may find it useful to differentiate between purchases of production-related products (e.g., materials, components, and parts) and non-production-related products (e.g., office furniture, office supplies, and IT support). This distinction may be aligned with procurement practices and therefore may be a useful way to more efficiently organize and collect data (see box 5.2 of the Scope 3 Standard).

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Metrics in use for ESG Reporting- 1 Best and complete read

Metrics in use for ESG Reporting

Here is a list of Metrics in use for ESG Reporting that companies can use to start communicating on the ESG issues. The metrics have been divided into four categories:

Each category contains recommended disclosure metrics (both qualitative and quantitative) that have been marked either as minimum disclosures (relevant to all companies) or additional disclosures (that might not be relevant to all companies).

The selection of recommended disclosure metrics has been informed by relevant regulatory initiatives i.e. the CSRD and the ESRS as well as the Warsaw Stock Exchange corporate governance code. Moreover, to address increasing investors’ data needs, they have been also aligned with the mandatory PAI indicators for corporate investments required by the SFDR (see mapping in the Appendix – Relevance of the Guidelines to investors). References have been added below each section to other frameworks and resources that companies may also consider (Appendix – Alignment with EU regulations and other frameworks).

It should be emphasized that the Guidelines do not provide an exhaustive list of indicators and topics. Rather they aim to offer less advanced companies a minimum set of carefully selected disclosure metrics that will help them to prepare for the upcoming requirements stemming from the CSRD and the ESRS and better respond to investors’ ESG data needs. Companies in scope of the CSRD should use the ESRS to prepare their disclosures on material sustainability topics.

Metrics in use for ESG Reporting – General information

General information metrics provide essential context to understand the company business activities and value creation model, it’s material ESG impacts, risks and opportunities, and how it is managing them.

General information

What should be disclosed:

I

M 1

Business model

  • Short description of the company business model and value chain.
  • Whether the company is active in the following sectors: fossil fuel (coal, oil and gas), controversial weapons along with related revenues.

Companies may consider including the following characteristics when describing their business model: economic activities; products and services offered; markets of operation, company size (in terms of workforce, business locations, revenue, etc.)

I

M 2

Sustainability integration

  • Whether and how sustainability matters are integrated in the company strategy and business model.
  • Resilience of the company strategy and business model(s) to material sustainability risks.
  • Policies and actions adopted to manage material sustainability matters.
  • Targets related to management of sustainability matters.

I

M 3

Sustainability governance

  • Governance bodies roles and responsibilities with regard to sustainability matters (e.g. in relation to risk management, target setting, sustainability disclosure).
  • Whether governance bodies are informed about sustainability matters, and how they are addressed by administrative and/or management bodies.
  • Whether incentive schemes are offered to members of governance bodies that are linked to sustainability matters.

I

M 4

Material impacts, Risk and Opportunities

  • The processes used to identify material impacts, risks and opportunities.
  • Sustainability due diligence process.
  • Outcome of the materiality assessment (identified material impacts, risks and opportunities).
  • How material impacts, risks and opportunities interact with the company strategy and business model.

I

M 5

Stakeholder engagement

  • Description of the company main stakeholders, and how the company engages with them.
  • How the interests and views of stakeholders are taken into account by the undertaking’s strategy and business model.

Metrics in use for ESG Reporting- Environmental disclosures

Environmental metrics cover issues that arise from or impact the natural environment.

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Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies

Get the requirements for properly disclosing the accounting policies to provide the users of your financial statements with useful financial data, in the common language prescribed in the world’s most widely used standards for financial reporting, the IFRS Standards. First there is a section providing guidance on what the requirements are, followed by a comprehensive example, easy to tailor to the specific needs of your company.Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies guidance

Whether to disclose an accounting policy

1. In deciding whether a particular accounting policy should be disclosed, management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in the reported financial performance and financial position. Disclosure of particular accounting policies is especially useful to users where those policies are selected from alternatives allowed in IFRS. [IAS 1.119]

2. Some IFRSs specifically require disclosure of particular accounting policies, including choices made by management between different policies they allow. For example, IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment requires disclosure of the measurement bases used for classes of property, plant and equipment and IFRS 3 Business Combinations requires disclosure of the measurement basis used for non-controlling interest acquired during the period.

3. In this guidance, policies are disclosed that are specific to the entity and relevant for an understanding of individual line items in the financial statements, together with the notes for those line items. Other, more general policies are disclosed in the note 25 in the example below. Where permitted by local requirements, entities could consider moving these non-entity-specific policies into an Appendix.

Change in accounting policy – new and revised accounting standards

4. Where an entity has changed any of its accounting policies, either as a result of a new or revised accounting standard or voluntarily, it must explain the change in its notes. Additional disclosures are required where a policy is changed retrospectively, see note 26 for further information. [IAS 8.28]

5. New or revised accounting standards and interpretations only need to be disclosed if they resulted in a change in accounting policy which had an impact in the current year or could impact on future periods. There is no need to disclose pronouncements that did not have any impact on the entity’s accounting policies and amounts recognised in the financial statements. [IAS 8.28]

6. For the purpose of this edition, it is assumed that RePort Co. PLC did not have to make any changes to its accounting policies, as it is not affected by the interest rate benchmark reforms, and the other amendments summarised in Appendix D are only clarifications that did not require any changes. However, this assumption will not necessarily apply to all entities. Where there has been a change in policy, this will need to be explained, see note 26 for further information.

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Disclosure non-financial assets and liabilities example

Disclosure non-financial assets and liabilities example

The guidance for this disclosure example is provided here.

8 Non-financial assets and liabilities

This note provides information about the group’s non-financial assets and liabilities, including:

8(a) Property, plant and equipment

Amounts in CU’000

Freehold land

Buildings

Furniture, fittings and equipment

Machinery and vehicles

Assets under construction

Total

At 1 January 2019

Cost or fair value

11,350

28,050

27,510

70,860

137,770

Accumulated depreciation

-7,600

-37,025

-44,625

Net carrying amount

11,350

28,050

19,910

33,835

93,145

Movements in 2019

Exchange differences

-43

-150

-193

Revaluation surplus

2,700

3,140

5,840

Additions

2,874

1,490

2,940

4,198

3,100

14,602

Assets classified as held for sale and other disposals

-424

-525

-2,215

3,164

Depreciation charge

-1,540

-2,030

-4,580

8,150

Closing net carrying amount

16,500

31,140

20,252

31,088

3,100

102,080

At 31 December 2019

Cost or fair value

16,500

31,140

29,882

72,693

3,100

153,315

Accumulated depreciation

-9,630

-41,605

-51,235

Net carrying amount

16,500

31,140

20,252

31,088

3,100

102,080

Movements in 2020

Exchange differences

-230

-570

-800

Revaluation surplus

3,320

3,923

7,243

Acquisition of subsidiary

800

3,400

1,890

5,720

11,810

Additions

2,500

2,682

5,313

11,972

3,450

25,917

Assets classified as held for sale and other disposals

-550

-5,985

-1,680

-8,215

Transfers

950

2,150

-3,100

Depreciation charge

-1,750

-2,340

-4,380

-8,470

Impairment loss (ii)

-465

-30

-180

-675

Closing net carrying amount

22,570

38,930

19,820

44,120

3,450

128,890

At 31 December 2020

Cost or fair value

22,570

38,930

31,790

90,285

3,450

187,025

Accumulated depreciation

-11,970

-46,165

-58,135

Net carrying amount

22,570

38,930

19,820

44,120

3,450

128,890

(i) Non-current assets pledged as security

Refer to note 24 for information on non-current assets pledged as security by the group.

(ii) Impairment loss and compensation

The impairment loss relates to assets that were damaged by a fire – refer to note 4(b) for details. The whole amount was recognised as administrative expense in profit or loss, as there was no amount included in the asset revaluation surplus relating to the relevant assets. [IAS 36.130(a)]

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Goodwill or bargain on acquisition

Goodwill or bargain on acquisition – in short

Goodwill is initially measured at cost, being the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred, the amount recognised for non-controlling interests and any fair value of the Group’s previously held equity interests in the acquiree over the identifiable net assets acquired and liabilities assumed.

If the sum of this consideration and other items is lower than the fair value of the net assets acquired, the difference is, after reassessment, recognised in profit or loss as a gain on bargain purchase.

Business combinations

Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method. Cost of an acquisition is measured at the fair value of the assets given and liabilities incurred or assumed at the date of exchange. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination (including contingent liabilities) are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date. There are no non-controlling interest in the Group’s subsidiaries.

The Dorolco acquisition – On xx October 202x Dorco Loan PLC acquired 100% of the Dorolco operations, by acquiring 100% of all voting shares in the legal entities now part of this Group.

Assets acquired and liabilities assumed – Because the holding companies established in structuring the Dorolco acquisition have been incorporated on behalf of this transaction, the opening balance sheet as at xx October 202x shown in the Consolidated Financial Statements as comparatives to the balance sheet as at 31 December 202x is the balance sheet at incorporation date. Shares issued were paid on acquisition date, except for the share option plan shares issued at closing date (1,000,000 shares issued, of which as at 31 December 202x 155,000 were not yet granted and paid up).

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1 best way Q Inventory or Equipment?

Inventory or Equipment – This distinction is important because inventory is current and equipment is non-current property plant and equipment. Inventory is cash flow from operating activities, equipment is cash flow used in investing activities. Inventory is cost of sales and equipment is depreciation. Inventory or Equipment

Equipment is recognised component-wise. This means each significant part is treated just like a non-current asset. When that part is replaced, it is derecognised (or scrapped) and the new part is purchased and capitalised. Inventory or Equipment

Therefore, the stocks of such significant parts are not classified as inventories. They are just like capital ‘work in progress’. The stock of significant parts awaiting utilisation may be classified as for example … Read more