Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies

Get the requirements for properly disclosing the accounting policies to provide the users of your financial statements with useful financial data, in the common language prescribed in the world’s most widely used standards for financial reporting, the IFRS Standards. First there is a section providing guidance on what the requirements are, followed by a comprehensive example, easy to tailor to the specific needs of your company.Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies guidance

Whether to disclose an accounting policy

1. In deciding whether a particular accounting policy should be disclosed, management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in the reported financial performance and financial position. Disclosure of particular accounting policies is especially useful to users where those policies are selected from alternatives allowed in IFRS. [IAS 1.119]

2. Some IFRSs specifically require disclosure of particular accounting policies, including choices made by management between different policies they allow. For example, IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment requires disclosure of the measurement bases used for classes of property, plant and equipment and IFRS 3 Business Combinations requires disclosure of the measurement basis used for non-controlling interest acquired during the period.

3. In this guidance, policies are disclosed that are specific to the entity and relevant for an understanding of individual line items in the financial statements, together with the notes for those line items. Other, more general policies are disclosed in the note 25 in the example below. Where permitted by local requirements, entities could consider moving these non-entity-specific policies into an Appendix.

Change in accounting policy – new and revised accounting standards

4. Where an entity has changed any of its accounting policies, either as a result of a new or revised accounting standard or voluntarily, it must explain the change in its notes. Additional disclosures are required where a policy is changed retrospectively, see note 26 for further information. [IAS 8.28]

5. New or revised accounting standards and interpretations only need to be disclosed if they resulted in a change in accounting policy which had an impact in the current year or could impact on future periods. There is no need to disclose pronouncements that did not have any impact on the entity’s accounting policies and amounts recognised in the financial statements. [IAS 8.28]

6. For the purpose of this edition, it is assumed that RePort Co. PLC did not have to make any changes to its accounting policies, as it is not affected by the interest rate benchmark reforms, and the other amendments summarised in Appendix D are only clarifications that did not require any changes. However, this assumption will not necessarily apply to all entities. Where there has been a change in policy, this will need to be explained, see note 26 for further information.

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Contract Modifications under IFRS 15

Contract Modifications under IFRS 15

INTRO – Contract Modifications under IFRS 15 – A ‘contract modification’ occurs when the parties to a contract approve a change in its scope, price, or both. The accounting for a contract modification depends on whether distinct goods or services are added to the arrangement, and on the related pricing in the modified arrangement. This page discusses both identifying and accounting for a contract modification, including comprehensive examples.

1 Identifying a contract modification

A contract modification is a change in the scope or price of a contract, or both. This may be described as a change order, a variation, or an amendment. When a contract modification is approved, it creates or changes the enforceable rights and obligations of the parties to the contract. Consistent with the determination of whether a contract exists in Step 1 of the model, this approval may be written, oral, or implied by customary business practices, and should be legally enforceable. [IFRS 15.18]

If the parties have not approved a contract modification, then an entity continues to apply the requirements of IFRS 15 to the existing contract until approval is obtained.

If the parties have approved a change in scope, but have not yet determined the corresponding change in price – i.e. an unpriced change order – then the entity estimates the change to the transaction price by applying the guidance on estimating variable consideration and constraining the transaction price (see variable consideration and the constraint) in Step 3 of IFRS 15. [IFRS 15.19]

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Best guide IFRS 16 Lessee modifications

Best guide IFRS 16 Lessee modifications

summarises the process surrounding changes in lease contracts that identify as lease modification.

A lessee that chooses not to apply the practical expedient (IFRS 16 option for rent concessions arising directly from the COVID-19 pandemic that are not going to be accounted for as lease modifications), or agrees changes to its lease contracts that do not qualify for the practical expedient, assesses whether there is a lease modification.

Overview

A change in the scope of a lease, or the consideration for a lease, that was not part of the original terms and conditions meets the standard’s definition of a lease modification.

A lessee accounts for a lease modification as a separate lease if both of the following conditions exist:

  • the modification increases the scope of the lease by adding the right to use one or more underlying assets; and
  • the consideration for the lease increases by an amount equivalent to the stand- alone price for the increase in scope and any appropriate adjustments to that stand-alone price to reflect the circumstances of the particular contract.

For a modification that is not a separate lease, at the effective date of the modification the lessee accounts for it by remeasuring the lease liability using a discount rate determined at that date and:

  • for modifications that decrease the scope of the lease: decreasing the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset to reflect the partial or full termination of the lease, and recognising a gain or loss that reflects the proportionate decrease in scope; and
  • for all other modifications: making a corresponding adjustment to the right-of- use asset.

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Property plant and equipment

Property plant and equipment are tangible items that are held for use in many different ways and are expected to be used during more than one period.

Variable consideration in transaction price and 4 best examples

Variable consideration in transaction price

IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (contents page is here) introduced a single and comprehensive framework which sets out how much revenue is to be recognised, and when. The core principle is that a vendor should recognise revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the vendor expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. See a summary of IFRS 15 here. Variable consideration in transaction price

This section is part of step 3 determining the transaction price. Instead of the amount of consideration specified in a contract being fixed, the amount receivable by a Read more

Dealer sales vehicle incentives

Dealer sales vehicle incentives – Some automotive entities (including automotive parts suppliers (APSs) and original equipment manufacturers (original equipment manufacturers (OEM)s)) needed to change certain revenue recognition practices as a result of applying the revenue recognition standard, IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers.  These standards superseded virtually all previous revenue recognition requirements in IFRS and US GAAP. Original equipment manufacturers need to use significant judgement when they identify separate performance obligations (i.e., units of account), which may be different from those identified under IAS 18.

original equipment manufacturers (OEM)s frequently offer sales incentives in contracts to sell vehicles to dealers. These sales incentives may include cash rebates, bonuses or other types of incentives made available to Read more

Contract modifications and variable consideration 1 best 2 complete

Contract modifications and variable consideration are sometimes not easy to distinguish from one another. So here is a discussion bringing them together.

IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (contents page is here) introduced a single and comprehensive framework which sets out how much revenue is to be recognised, and when. The core principle is that a vendor should recognise revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the vendor expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. See a summary of IFRS 15 here. Contract modifications and variable consideration

Contract modifications

A contract modification arises when the parties approve a change … Read more

Cost of Property plant and equipment

Cost of Property plant and equipment comprises: its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting discounts etc.