Provisions and contingent liabilities – 2 know it all!

Provisions and contingent liabilities

A provision shall be recognised when: Provisions and contingent liabilities

  1. an entity has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event;Provisions and contingent liabilities
  2. it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; and
  3. a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.

If these conditions are not met, no provision shall be recognised. But a disclosure for a contingent liability could be required (see below).

This is what it is about, make your decision supportable!

Provisions are liabilities of uncertain timing or amount. This uncertainty makes them different from accruals or payables, where the timing and amount are known or … Read more

Restructuring

Restructuring – What are the IFRS requirements?

A restructuring can comprise numerous activities, including termination or relocation of a business, a change in management structure and lay-offs. At a high level, the associated costs are recognized when (1) the program is of such scale that it meets the IFRS definition of a restructuring, and (2) management has an obligation to proceed with the restructuring. In addition, the nature of the costs matters – certain costs cannot be recognized before being incurred, and employment termination costs may need to be recognized earlier than other restructuring costs.

Psychological risk

Restructuring costs are in the scope of IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets with the exception of employee termination benefits, which are accounted for under IAS 19 Employee benefits.

Restructuring vs. exit activities

IAS 37 defines a restructuring as a program that materially changes the scope of a business or the manner in which it is conducted. US GAAP uses the term ‘exit activities’, which may be broader than a ‘restructuring’ under IFRS. Understanding the scale of the restructuring is therefore important because not all programs may qualify for cost recognition under IFRS.

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SPAC Merger under IFRS 3

SPAC Merger

Private operating companies seeking a ‘fast track’ stock exchange listing sometimes arrange to be acquired by a smaller listed company (sometimes described as a ‘shell’ company or Special Purpose Acquisition Company or SPAC that is also a ‘shell’ company, especially incorporated (and listed) to serve a reverse acquisition/SPAC Merger). This usually involves the listed company issuing its shares to the private company shareholders in exchange for their shares.

The listed company becomes the ‘legal parent’ of the operating company, which in turn becomes the ‘legal subsidiary’.

A transaction in which a company with substantial operations (‘operating company’) arranges to be acquired by a listed shell company should be analysed to determine if it is a business combination within the scope of IFRS 3.

US GAAP comparison

The registering of securities that are issued by a special-purpose acquisition company (SPAC) — A Form S-1 may be used for the initial registration and sale of shares of a SPAC, a newly formed company that will use the proceeds from the IPO to acquire a private operating company (which generally has not been identified at the time of the IPO). To complete the acquisition of a private operating company, the SPAC may file a proxy or registration statement. Within four days of the closing of the acquisition of the private operating company, the SPAC must file a “super Form 8-K” that includes all of the information required in a Form 10 registration statement of the private operating company.

Is the transaction a business combination?

Answering this question involves determining:

  • which company is the ‘accounting acquirer’ under IFRS 3, ie the company that obtains effective control over the other
  • whether or not the acquired company (ie the ‘accounting acquiree’ under IFRS 3) is a business.

In these transactions, the pre-combination shareholders of the operating company typically obtain a majority (controlling) interest, with the pre-combination shareholders of the listed shell company retaining a minority (non-controlling) interest (i.e. a SPAC Merger). This usually indicates that the operating company is the accounting acquirer.

If the listed company is the accounting acquiree, the next step is to determine whether it is a ‘business’ as defined in IFRS 3. In general, the listed company is not a business if its activities are limited to managing cash balances and filing obligations. Further analysis will be needed if the listed company undertakes other activities and holds other assets and liabilities. Determining whether the listed company is a business in these more complex situations typically requires judgement.

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IFRS vs US GAAP Employee benefits

IFRS vs US GAAP Employee benefits

The following discussion captures a number of the more significant GAAP differences under both the impairment standards. It is important to note that the discussion is not inclusive of all GAAP differences in this area.

The significant differences and similarities between U.S. GAAP and IFRS related to accounting for investment property are summarized in the following tables.

Standards Reference

US GAAP1

IFRS2

715 Compensation – Retirement benefits

710-10 Compensation- General – Overall

712-10 Compensation – Nonretirement Postemployment Benefits – Overall

IAS 19 Employee Benefits

IFRIC 14 The limit on a defined benefit asset minimum funding requirements and their interaction

Introduction

The guidance under US GAAP and IFRS as it relates to employee benefits contains some significant differences with potentially far-reaching implications.

This narrative deals with employee benefits provided under formal plans and agreements between an entity and its employees, under legislation or through industry arrangements, including those provided under informal practices that give rise to constructive obligations.

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Recognition

Recognition – The process of capturing, for inclusion in the statement of financial position or the statement(s) of financial performance, an item that meets the definition of an element. It involves depicting the item (either alone or as part of a line item) in words and by a monetary amount, and including that amount in totals in the relevant statement.


Conceptually the process of recognising a element/item/transaction/event in the financial statements is discussed in the Conceptual Framework  caption 5.1 – 5.25.  To summarise the concept of recognition here is caption 5.1:

‘Recognition is the process of capturing for inclusion in the statement of financial position or the statement(s) of financial performance an item that meets the definition of one Read more

Contingent liability

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that potentially arises from past events out of control of the entity or obligations not probable/measurable

Valuing deferred tax assets – How 2 best account it in IAS 12

Valuing deferred tax assets

Judgement! Judgement! Judgement! Judgement! Judgement! Judgement! Judgement! Judgement! OK?

The telecommunications industry is very dynamic, driven by technological developments and changes in the competitive and regulatory environment. Due to the significant capital expenditure involved in building infrastructure, investment recovery periods tend to be longer than in many other industries. In the past, a number of telecom operators have recorded significant start-up trading losses and losses due to impairment charges on licences or goodwill and other assets resulting from business combinations. Depending on local tax legislation, operators can use these losses to offset future taxable income.

Companies are required to assess the accumulated losses and the recoverability of any related deferred tax assets (deferred tax asset) each Read more

Leasehold makegood and restoration provisions

Leasehold makegood and restoration provisions – Lease makegood / leasehold restoration provisions should be recognised in relation to properties held under operating leases. Such a provision may arise because many property leases contain clauses under which the lessee has to make good dilapidations or other damage which occurs to the property during the course of the lease or restore a property to a specified condition.

Overview Leasehold makegood and restoration provisions leased office

Under IAS 37 14, a provision shall be recognised when: Leasehold makegood and restoration provisions leased office

  • “An entity has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event;
  • It is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be
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Private sector participation in public infrastructure

Private sector participation in public infrastructure – There are a wide variety of arrangements in operation globally whereby government or government agencies enter into contractual service arrangements to attract private sector participation in the development, financing, operation and maintenance of infrastructure for public services.

IFRIC 12 is concerned with the accounting by private sector operators for “public-to-private” service concession arrangements (which are also know by a variety of other titles, including “service concession” “build-operate-transfer” or “rehabilitate-operate-transfer” arrangements). These arrangements typically involve a private sector operator constructing (or upgrading) the infrastructure used to provide the public service, and then operating and maintaining the infrastructure for a specified period of time.

However, the Interpretation does not apply to all such arrangements. Its Read more