Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies

Get the requirements for properly disclosing the accounting policies to provide the users of your financial statements with useful financial data, in the common language prescribed in the world’s most widely used standards for financial reporting, the IFRS Standards. First there is a section providing guidance on what the requirements are, followed by a comprehensive example, easy to tailor to the specific needs of your company.Example accounting policies

Example accounting policies guidance

Whether to disclose an accounting policy

1. In deciding whether a particular accounting policy should be disclosed, management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in the reported financial performance and financial position. Disclosure of particular accounting policies is especially useful to users where those policies are selected from alternatives allowed in IFRS. [IAS 1.119]

2. Some IFRSs specifically require disclosure of particular accounting policies, including choices made by management between different policies they allow. For example, IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment requires disclosure of the measurement bases used for classes of property, plant and equipment and IFRS 3 Business Combinations requires disclosure of the measurement basis used for non-controlling interest acquired during the period.

3. In this guidance, policies are disclosed that are specific to the entity and relevant for an understanding of individual line items in the financial statements, together with the notes for those line items. Other, more general policies are disclosed in the note 25 in the example below. Where permitted by local requirements, entities could consider moving these non-entity-specific policies into an Appendix.

Change in accounting policy – new and revised accounting standards

4. Where an entity has changed any of its accounting policies, either as a result of a new or revised accounting standard or voluntarily, it must explain the change in its notes. Additional disclosures are required where a policy is changed retrospectively, see note 26 for further information. [IAS 8.28]

5. New or revised accounting standards and interpretations only need to be disclosed if they resulted in a change in accounting policy which had an impact in the current year or could impact on future periods. There is no need to disclose pronouncements that did not have any impact on the entity’s accounting policies and amounts recognised in the financial statements. [IAS 8.28]

6. For the purpose of this edition, it is assumed that RePort Co. PLC did not have to make any changes to its accounting policies, as it is not affected by the interest rate benchmark reforms, and the other amendments summarised in Appendix D are only clarifications that did not require any changes. However, this assumption will not necessarily apply to all entities. Where there has been a change in policy, this will need to be explained, see note 26 for further information.

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9 Essential Leases and No leases examples

9 Essential Leases and no leases examples

– shows the difference between cases of entities involved in contracts containing a lease under IFRS 16 Leases and similar but different cases of entities involved in contracts NOT containing a lease under IFRS 16 Leases.

To start setting the stage, the definition of a lease: A contract, or part of a contract, that conveys the right to use an asset (the underlying asset) for a period of time in exchange for consideration.

1. Lease Rail cars

The case
A contract between Customer and a freight carrier (Supplier) provides Customer with the use of 10 rail cars of a particular type for five years. The contract specifies the rail cars; the cars are owned by Supplier. Customer determines when, where and which goods are to be transported using the cars. When the cars are not in use, they are kept at Customer’s premises. Customer can use the cars for another purpose (for example, storage) if it so chooses.

However, the contract specifies that Customer cannot transport particular types of cargo (for example, explosives). If a particular car needs to be serviced or repaired, Supplier is required to substitute a car of the same type. Otherwise, and other than on default by Customer, Supplier cannot retrieve the cars during the five-year period.Leases and No leases examples

The contract also requires Supplier to provide an engine and a driver when requested by Customer. Supplier keeps the engines at its premises and provides instructions to the driver detailing Customer’s requests to transport goods. Supplier can choose to use any one of a number of engines to fulfil each of Customer’s requests, and one engine could be used to transport not only Customer’s goods, but also the goods of other customers (ie if other customers require the transportation of goods to destinations close to the destination requested by Customer and within a similar timeframe, Supplier can choose to attach up to 100 rail cars to the engine).

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Property plant and equipment

Property plant and equipment are tangible items that are held for use in many different ways and are expected to be used during more than one period.

Investment property

Investment property is property (land or a building—or part of a building—or both) held (by the owner or by the lessee as a right-of-use asset) to earn rentals or for capital appreciation

Cost of Property plant and equipment

Cost of Property plant and equipment comprises: its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting discounts etc.

What is Property plant and equipment?

What is Property plant and equipment?

Objective

The objective of IAS 16 Property plant and equipment is to prescribe the accounting treatment for property, plant and equipment so that users of the financial statements can discern information about an entity’s investment in its property, plant and equipment and the changes in such investment.

The principal issues in accounting for property, plant and equipment are the recognition of the assets, the determination of their carrying amounts and the depreciation charges and impairment losses to be recognised in relation to them.

Scope

IAS 16 Property plant and equipment is applicable in accounting for property, plant and equipment except when another Standard requires or permits a different accounting treatment. This Standard does not … Read more

Leasehold makegood and restoration provisions

Leasehold makegood and restoration provisions – Lease makegood / leasehold restoration provisions should be recognised in relation to properties held under operating leases. Such a provision may arise because many property leases contain clauses under which the lessee has to make good dilapidations or other damage which occurs to the property during the course of the lease or restore a property to a specified condition.

Overview Leasehold makegood and restoration provisions leased office

Under IAS 37 14, a provision shall be recognised when: Leasehold makegood and restoration provisions leased office

  • “An entity has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event;
  • It is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be
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Food for thought for Property plant and equipment

Food for thought for Property plant and equipment

Economic benefits to be derived from an item of Property, plant and equipment (PPE) can be direct or indirect. An item of PPE may generate economic benefit individually or in association with other assets and liabilities.

An item of PPE like safety and environmental equipment does not generate any direct economic benefit. Still, such items are recognised as PPE since they generate economic benefits along with associated assets. For example, a piece of safety equipment creates value enhancement to a chemical processing plant as the plant is not permitted to operate without the safety equipment. [IAS 16 7 and IAS 16 11]

Component-wise recognition of PPE Food for thought for

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Private sector participation in public infrastructure

Private sector participation in public infrastructure – There are a wide variety of arrangements in operation globally whereby government or government agencies enter into contractual service arrangements to attract private sector participation in the development, financing, operation and maintenance of infrastructure for public services.

IFRIC 12 is concerned with the accounting by private sector operators for “public-to-private” service concession arrangements (which are also know by a variety of other titles, including “service concession” “build-operate-transfer” or “rehabilitate-operate-transfer” arrangements). These arrangements typically involve a private sector operator constructing (or upgrading) the infrastructure used to provide the public service, and then operating and maintaining the infrastructure for a specified period of time.

However, the Interpretation does not apply to all such arrangements. Its Read more