IFRS 15 Retail – the finest perfect examples

IFRS 15 Retail revenue – finest perfect examples

Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand identified through a supply chain. The term “retailer” is typically applied where a service provider fills the small orders of many individuals, who are end-users, rather than large orders of a small number of wholesale, corporate or government clientele. (Source: Wikipedia)

So what is the IFRS 15 guidance for retail?

Here are the cases covering the most significant accounting topics for retail in IFRS 15.


Case – Customer incentives Buy three, get coupon for one free

Death By Chocolate Ltd, a high street chain, is offering a promotion whereby a customer who purchases three boxes of chocolates at €20 per box in a single transaction in a store receives an offer for one free box of chocolates if the customer fills out a request form and mails it to them before a set expiration date.

Death By Chocolate estimates, based on recent experience with similar promotions, that 80% of the customers will complete the mail in rebate required to receive the free box of chocolates.

How is a ‘buy three, get one free’ transaction accounted for and presented by Death By Chocolate?

The rules

IFRS 15.22 states: “At contract inception, an entity shall assess the goods or services promised in a contract with a customer and shall identify as a performance obligation each promise to transfer to the customer either:IFRS 15 Retail

  1. a good or service (or a bundle of goods or services) that is distinct; or
  2. a series of distinct goods or services that are substantially the same and that have the same pattern of transfer to the customer (see paragraph 23).”

IFRS 15.26 provides examples of distinct goods and services, including “granting options to purchase additional goods or services (when those options provide a customer with a material right, as described in paragraphs B39-B43)”.

IFRS 15.B40: “If , in a contract, an entity grants a customer the option to acquire additional goods or services, that option gives rise to a performance obligation in the contract only if the option provides a material right to the customer that it would not receive without entering into that contract (for example, a discount that is incremental to the range of discounts typically given for those goods or services to that class of customer in that geographical area or market).

Read more

IFRS 15 Real estate Revenue complete and accurate recognition

IFRS 15 Real estate

Under IFRS 15 real estate entities recognize revenue over the construction period if certain conditions are met.

Key points

  • An entity must judge whether the different elements of a contract can be separated from each other based on the distinct criteria. A more complex judgment exists for real estate developers that provide services or deliver common properties or amenities in addition to the property being sold.
  • Contract modifications are common in the real estate development industry. Contract modifications might needIFRS 15 Real estate to be accounted for as a new contract, or combined and accounted for together with an existing contract.
  • Real estate managers may structure their arrangements such that services and fees are in different contracts. These contracts may meet the requirements to be accounted for as a combined contract when applying IFRS 15.
  • Real estate management entities are often entitled to several different fees. IFRS 15 will require a manager to consider whether the services should be viewed as a single performance obligation, or whether some of these services are ‘distinct’ and should therefore be treated as separate performance obligations.
  • Variable consideration for entities in the real estate industry may come in the form of claims, awards and incentive payments, discounts, rebates, refunds, credits, price concessions, performance bonuses, penalties or other similar items.
  • Real estate developers will need to consider whether they meet any of the three criteria necessary for recognition of revenue over time.

IFRS 15 core principle

The core principle of IFRS 15 is that revenue reflects the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.

Read more

Revenue definition

Revenue definition

Revenue is defined in IFRS 15 as: ‘Income arising in the course of an entity’s ordinary activities‘.

IFRS 15 establishes a single and comprehensive framework which sets out how much revenue is to be recognised, and when. The core principle is that a vendor should recognise revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the vendor expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.

The application of the core principle in IFRS 15 is carried out in five steps:

revenue definition

The five-step model is applied to individual contracts. However, as a practical expedient, IFRS 15 permits an entity to apply the model to a portfolio of contracts (or performance obligations) with similar characteristics if the entity reasonably expects that the effects would not differ materially from applying it to individual contracts.

Read more

Sale of hardware and installation services

Sale of hardware and installation services provides practical insight in revenue recognition of mixed contracts with customers under IFRS 15. Two very similar sales transactions/contracts but one with only one single performance obligation and the other with separate performance obligations.

Case 1 – separate performance obligations Sale of hardware and installation services

Vendor enters into a contract to provide hardware and installation services to Customer. Vendor always sells the hardware with the installation service, but the installation is not complex such that Customer could perform the installation on its own or use other third parties. Sale of hardware and installation services


Does the transaction consist of one or more performance obligations?

More than one – Vendor should account for … Read more

Distinct goods or services

Distinct goods or services is a cornerstone of IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers. Distinct means the customer can benefit directly from the service

Software warranties

Software warranties - A customer may have the option to separately purchase a warranty on a product (e.g., computer hardware, equipment) for a period of time

Option to renew a contract

Allocation of the transaction price to an option to renew a contract is an application of IFRS 15 revenue from contracts with customers and other clients

Option for discounted software

Option for discounted software in general the entity shall allocate a discount proportionately to all performance obligations in the contract with the customer.