IAS 16 Generation assets for Power and Utilities

Generation assets for Power and Utilities

– are often large and complex installations. They are expensive to construct, tend to be exposed to harsh operating conditions and require periodic replacement or repair. This environment leads to specific accounting issues.

1 Fixed assets and components

IFRS has a specific requirement for ‘component’ depreciation, as described in IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment. Each significant part of an item of property, plant and equipment is depreciated separately. Significant parts of an asset that have similar useful lives and patterns of consumption can be grouped together. This requirement can create complications for utility entities, because many assets include components with a shorter useful life than the asset as a whole.

Identifying components of an asset

Generation assets might comprise a significant number of components, many of which will have differing useful lives. The significant components of these types of assets must be separately identified. This can be a complex process, particularly on transition to IFRS, because the detailed record-keeping needed for componentisation might not have been required in order to comply with national generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). This can particularly be an issue for older power plants. However, some regulators require detailed asset records, which can be useful for IFRS component identification purposes.

An entity might look to its operating data if the necessary information for components is not readily identified by the accounting records. Some components can be identified by considering the routine shutdown or overhaul schedules for power stations and the associated replacement and maintenance routines. Consideration should also be given to those components that are prone to technological obsolescence, corrosion or wear and tear that is more severe than that of the other portions of the larger asset.

First-time IFRS adopters can benefit from an exemption under IFRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards. This exemption allows entities to use a value that is not depreciated cost in accordance with IAS 16, and IAS 23 Borrowing Costs as deemed cost on transition to IFRS. It is not necessary to apply the exemption to all assets or to a group of assets.

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IFRS vs US GAAP Employee benefits

IFRS vs US GAAP Employee benefits

The following discussion captures a number of the more significant GAAP differences under both the impairment standards. It is important to note that the discussion is not inclusive of all GAAP differences in this area.

The significant differences and similarities between U.S. GAAP and IFRS related to accounting for investment property are summarized in the following tables.

Standards Reference

US GAAP1

IFRS2

715 Compensation – Retirement benefits

710-10 Compensation- General – Overall

712-10 Compensation – Nonretirement Postemployment Benefits – Overall

IAS 19 Employee Benefits

IFRIC 14 The limit on a defined benefit asset minimum funding requirements and their interaction

Introduction

The guidance under US GAAP and IFRS as it relates to employee benefits contains some significant differences with potentially far-reaching implications.

This narrative deals with employee benefits provided under formal plans and agreements between an entity and its employees, under legislation or through industry arrangements, including those provided under informal practices that give rise to constructive obligations.

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The best way for IFRS 15 Measuring progress to completion

IFRS 15 Measuring progress to completion

– how to do it, what to use, learn it all

Introduction

For each performance obligation satisfied over time, revenue must be recognised over time (IFRS 15.39-45 & IFRS 15.B14-B19). To do so, an entity shall measure the progress towards complete satisfaction of the performance obligation.

The measurement of progress has the objective of faithfully depicting an entity’s performance in transferring control of the goods or services promised to the customer (that is, the extent to which the performance obligation is satisfied).

An entity shall apply a single method of measuring progress for each performance obligation satisfied over time, and shall apply that method consistently to similar performance obligations and in similar circumstances.

At the end of each reporting period, an entity shall remeasure its progress towards complete satisfaction of each performance obligation satisfied over time.

In July 2015 the Joint Transition Resource Group (TRG a combined effort by IASB and FASB to detect problems raised by the implementation of the revenue recognition standards) clarified that the principle of applying a single method of measuring progress for a given performance obligation is also applicable to a combined performance obligation, i.e. one that contains multiple non-distinct goods or services.

Hence, it is not appropriate to apply several methods depending on the stage of performance, even if these methods all belong to one of the two major categories of methods presented below (output methods vs input methods), for example a method measuring progress on the basis of hours expended, and a method measuring progress on the basis of labour costs incurred.

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Best guide IFRS 16 Lessor modifications

Best guide IFRS 16 Lessor modifications

summarises the accounting for lessor modifications that depends on – and may change – the lease classification.

Unlike IAS 17 Leases, the new standard provides detailed guidance on the lessor accounting for lease modifications, with separate guidance for modifications to finance leases and operating leases.

However, additional complexities arise for modifications of a finance lease receivable not accounted for as a separate lease for which, under paragraph 80(b) of IFRS 16, the lessor applies the requirements of IFRS 9 Financial Instruments. A number of issues arise due to differences in the basic concepts between IFRS 16 and IFRS 9.

The following diagram summarises the accounting for lease modifications by a lessor.

Best guide IFRS 16 Lessor modifications

Separate lease Not a separate lease – Finance to operating Not a separate lease – Finance to finance Lessor modifications to operating expenses

* A lessee reassessment of whether it is reasonably certain to exercise an option to extend, or not to exercise a termination option, included in the original lease contract is not a lease modification

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IAS 36 How Impairment test

IAS 36 How Impairment test is all about this – When looking at the step-by-step IAS 36 impairment approach it comes down to the following broadly organised steps: IAS 36 How Impairment test

  • What?? – Determining the scope and structure of the impairment review, explained here,
  • If and when? – Determining if and when a quantitative impairment test is necessary, explained here,
  • IAS 36 How Impairment test or understanding the mechanics of the impairment test and how to recognise or reverse any impairment loss, if necessary. Which is explained in this section…

The objective of IAS 36 Impairment of assets is to outline the procedures that an entity applies to ensure that its assets’ carrying values are not … Read more

The step-by-step IAS 36 impairment of assets approach

When looking at the step-by-step IAS 36 impairment of assets approach it comes down to the following broadly organised steps: Assets in scope IAS 36

  • What?? – Determining the scope and structure of the impairment review,
  • If and when? – Determining if and when a quantitative impairment test is necessary, jump to this part here
  • How? – Understanding the mechanics of the impairment test and how to recognise or reverse any impairment loss, if necessary, jump to this part here.

The objective of IAS 36 Impairment of assets is to outline the procedures that an entity applies to ensure that its assets’ carrying values are not stated above their recoverable amounts (the amounts to be recovered through use or … Read more

IFRS 2 Determination of the vesting period

Overview IFRS 2 Determination of the vesting period

Employee service costs are recognised in profit or loss over the vesting period from the service commencement date until vesting date. The following topics are of importance in IFRS 2 Determination of the vesting period

Service commencement date and grant date

The ‘vesting period’ is the period during which all of the specified vesting conditions are to be satisfied in order for the employees to be entitled unconditionally to the equity instrument. Normally, this is the period between grant date and the vesting date (see IFRS 2 Definitions).

However, services are recognised when they are received and grant date may occur after the employees have begun rendering services. Grant date is … Read more

IFRS 2 Employee equity-settled share-based payment

IFRS 2 Employee equity-settled share-based payment – Headlines

Employee services are recognised as expenses, unless they qualify for recognition as assets, with a corresponding increase in equity.

  • Employee service costs are recognised over the vesting period from the service commencement date until vesting date.
  • Employee services are measured indirectly with reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted; this is done by applying the modified grant-date method. If, in rare circumstances, the fair value of the equity instruments granted cannot be measured reliably, then the intrinsic value method is applied.
  • Under the modified grant-date method, the grant-date fair value of the equity instruments granted is determined once at grant date, which may be after the service commencement date.
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First IFRS financial statements

The first annual financial statements in which an entity adopts International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs), by an explicit and unreserved statement of compliance with IFRSs. IFRS 1 sets out detailed rules that entities must follow when adopting IFRS for the first time. The standard also sets out a number of exemptions that may be applied when adopting IFRS. If an entity wishes to apply either of these exemptions a full audit trail must be produced to outline the assessment and sufficient evidence must be provided to evidence that the application of the exemption is appropriate.