Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

– provides guidance on the disclosure requirements under IFRS for IAS 12 income tax and provides a comprehensive example of a potential disclosures for these income taxes/corporate income tax.

Disclosure corporate income tax – Guidance

Relationship between tax expense and accounting profit

Entities can explain the relationship between tax expense (income) and accounting profit by disclosing reconciliations between: [IAS 12.81(c), IAS 12.85]

  1. tax expense and the product of accounting profit multiplied by the applicable tax rate, or
  2. the average effective tax rate and the applicable tax rate.

The applicable tax rate can either be the domestic rate of tax in the country in which the entity is domiciled, or it can be determined by aggregating separate reconciliations prepared using the domestic rate in each individual jurisdiction. Entities should choose the method that provides the most meaningful information to users.

Where an entity uses option (a) above and reconciles tax expense to the tax that is calculated by multiplying accounting profit with the applicable tax rate, the standard does not specify whether the reconciliation should be done for total tax expense, or only for tax expense attributable to continuing operations. While RePorting Co. Plc is reconciling total tax expense, it is equally acceptable to use profit from continuing operations as a starting point.

Initial recognition exemption – subsequent amortisation

The amount shown in the reconciliation of prima facie income tax payable to income tax expense as ‘amortisation of intangibles’ represents the amortisation of a temporary difference that arose on the initial recognition of the asset and for which no deferred tax liability has been recognised in accordance with IAS 12.15(b). The initial recognition exemption only applies to transactions that are not a business combination and do not affect either accounting profit or taxable profit.

Taxation of share-based payments

For the purpose of these illustrative financial statements, it is assumed that deductions are available for the payments made by RePorting Co. Plc into the employee share trust for the acquisition of the deferred shares (see note 21). In our example, the payments are made and shares acquired upfront which gives rise to deferred tax liabilities. It is also assumed that no tax deductions can be claimed in relation to the employee option plan.

However, this will not apply in all circumstances to all entities. The taxation of share-based payments and the accounting thereof is a complex area and specific advice should be obtained for each individual circumstance. IAS 12 provides further guidance on the extent to which deferred tax is recognised in profit or loss and in equity. [IAS 12.68A-68C]

Income tax recognised outside profit or loss

Under certain circumstances, current and deferred tax is recognised outside profit or loss either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, depending on the item that the tax relates to. Entities must disclose separately: [IAS 1.90, IAS 12.81(a),(ab), IAS 12.62A]

  1. the amount of income tax relating to each component of other comprehensive income, including reclassification adjustments (either in the statement of comprehensive income or in the notes), and
  2. the aggregate current and deferred tax relating to items that are charged directly to equity (without being recognised in other comprehensive income).Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Examples of items that are charged directly to equity are: [IAS 12.62A]

  1. the equity component on compound financial instruments
  2. share issue costs
  3. adjustments to retained earnings, eg as a result of a change in accounting policy.

Unrecognised temporary differences

The disclosure of unrecognised temporary differences in relation to the overseas subsidiary has been made for illustrative purposes only. The taxation of overseas subsidiaries will vary from case to case, and tax advice should be obtained to assess whether there are any potential tax consequences and temporary differences that should be disclosed.

Other potential disclosures

The following requirements are not illustrated in this publication

Issue not disclosed

Relevant disclosures or references

Changes in the applicable tax rate [IAS 12.81(d)]

Explain the changes (see illustrative disclosure below).

Deductible temporary differences and unused tax credits for which no deferred tax asset is recognised [IAS 12.81(e)]

Disclose amount and expiry date.

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax 

The payment of dividends will affect the entity’s income tax expense (eg a lower tax rate applies to distributed profits) [IAS 12.82A, IAS 12.87A-87C]

Explain the nature of the income tax consequences and disclose the amounts, if they are practicably determinable

Dividends were proposed or declared but not recognised as liability in the financial statements [IAS 12.81(i)]

Disclose the income tax consequences, if any.

Tax-related contingent liabilities or contingent assets, and changes in tax rates or tax laws enacted after the reporting period [IAS 12.88]

Provide disclosures required under IAS 37 – Disclosures and IAS 10 – Disclosures.

Business combination: changes in the deferred tax assets of the acquirer recognised as a result of the combination [IAS 12.81(j)]

Disclose the amount of the change

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax 

Deferred tax benefits acquired in a business combination but only recognised in a subsequent period [IAS 12.81(k)]

Describe the event or change in circumstances that caused the deferred tax asset to be recognised.

Changes in tax rate

Where the applicable tax rate changed during the year, the adjustments to the deferred tax balances appear as another reconciling item in the reconciliation of prima facie income tax payable to income tax expense. The associated explanations could be along the following lines: [IAS 12.81(d)]

The reduction of the Neverland corporation tax rate from 30% to 28% was substantively enacted on 26 June 2020 and will be effective from 1 April 2021. As a result, the relevant deferred tax balances have been remeasured. Deferred tax expected to reverse in the year to 31 December 2021 has been measured using the effective rate that will apply in Neverland for the period (28.5%). For years ending after 31 December 2021, the group has used the new tax rate of 28%.

Further reductions to the Neverland tax rate have been announced which will reduce the rate by 1% per annum to 24% by 1 April 2025. However, these changes are expected to be enacted separately each year. As a consequence, they had not been substantively enacted at the balance sheet date and, therefore, are not recognised in these financial statements.

The impact of the change in tax rate has been recognised in tax expense in profit or loss, except to the extent that it relates to items previously recognised outside profit or loss. For the group, such items include in particular remeasurements of post-employment benefit liabilities and the expected tax deduction in excess of the recognised expense for equity-settled share-based payments.

Disclosure corporate income tax exampleIAS 12 Income taxes Corporate taxes

6 Income tax expense

This note provides an analysis of the group’s income tax expense, and shows what amounts are recognised directly in equity and how the tax expense is affected by non-assessable and non-deductible items. It also explains significant estimates made in relation to the group’s tax position.

6(a) Income tax expense

Relevant items – IAS 12.79, IAS 12.81(g)(ii)

Table – IAS 12.80(a)(b)(c)

Amounts in CU’000

2020

2019

Current tax

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Current tax on profits for the year

17,116

11,899

Adjustments for current tax of prior periods

-369

135

Total current tax expense

16,747

12,034

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Deferred income tax

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Decrease/(increase) in deferred tax assets (note 8(e))

-4

-1,687

(Decrease)/increase in deferred tax liabilities (note 8(e))

-177

1,399

Total deferred tax expense/(benefit)

-181

-288

Income tax expense

16,566

11,746

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Income tax expense is attributable to:

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Profit from continuing operations

18,182

11,575

Profit from discontinued operation

384

171

16,566

11,746

6(b) Significant estimates – uncertain tax position and tax-related contingencyDisclosure profit or loss items

The tax legislation in relation to expenditures incurred in association with the establishment of the retail division is unclear. The group considers it probable that a tax deduction of CU1,933,000 will be available and has calculated the current tax expense on this basis. [IAS 1.122, IAS 1.125, IFRIC 23.A5]

However, the group has applied for a private ruling to confirm its interpretation. If the ruling is not favourable, this would increase the group’s current tax payable and current tax expense by CU580,000 respectively. The group expects to get a response, and therefore certainty about the tax position, before the next interim reporting date. [IAS 37.86, IAS 37.88] Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

6(c) Reconciliation of expected income tax to estimated income tax expense

Relevant items – IAS 12.81(c)(i), IAS 12.84, IAS 12.85

Table – IAS 12.81(d), IAS 12.85, IAS 12.80(b), IAS 12.80(f), IAS 12.80(e)

Amounts in CU’000

2020

2019

Profit from continuing operations before income tax expense

51,086

39,617

Profit from discontinued operation before income tax expense

1,111

570

Total profit before tax in financial statements

52,197

40,187

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Tax rate at the Neverland tax rate

30%

30%

Expected income tax expense

15,659

12,056

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Reconciliation to estimated income tax expense:

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Tax effect (i.e. at 30% tax) of reported amounts which are not deductible (taxable) in calculating taxable income

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Goodwill impairment

723

Amortisation of intangibles

92

158

Entertainment

82

79

Employee option plan

277

99

Dividends paid to preference shareholders

378

378

Recycling of foreign currency translation reserve on sale of subsidiary, see note 15

-51

Sundry items Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

189

14

Difference in overseas tax rates (lower) higher than 30%

-248

-127

Adjustments for current tax of prior periods

-369

135

Research and development tax credit

-121

-101

Previously unrecognised tax losses used to reduce deferred tax expense (refer to note 4(e))

-945

Previously unrecognised tax losses now recouped to reduce current tax expense Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

-45

Estimated income tax expense in profit or loss

16,566

11,746

6(d) Amounts recognised directly in equity

Table – IAS 12.81(a), IAS 12.62A

Amounts in CU’000

Notes

2020

2019

Aggregate current and deferred tax arising in the reporting period and not recognised in net profit or loss or other comprehensive income but directly debited or credited to equity:

Current tax: share buy-back transaction costs

9(a)

-15

Deferred tax: Convertible note and share issue costs

8(e)

990

975

6(e) Tax losses

Table – IAS 12.81(e) Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Amounts in CU’000

2020

2019

Unused tax losses for which no deferred tax asset has been recognised

1,740

2,796

Potential tax benefit at 30%

522

839

The unused tax losses were incurred by a dormant subsidiary that is not likely to generate taxable income in the foreseeable future. They can be carried forward indefinitely. See note 8(e) for information about recognised tax losses and significant judgements made in relation to them. Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

6(f) Unrecognised temporary differences

Table – IAS 12.81(f), IAS 12.87

Amounts in CU’000

2020

2019

Unused tax losses for which no deferred tax asset has been recognised

Foreign currency translation

2,190

1,980

Undistributed earnings

1,350

3,540

1,980

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Unrecognised deferred tax liabilities relating to the above temporary differences

1,062

594

Temporary differences of CU2,190,000 (2019 – CU1,980,000) have arisen as a result of the translation of the financial statements of the group’s subsidiary in China. However, a deferred tax liability has not been recognised as the liability will only crystallise in the event of disposal of the subsidiary, and no such disposal is expected in the foreseeable future.

RePorting Co. Retail Limited has undistributed earnings of CU1,350,000 (2019 – nil) which, if paid out as dividends, would be subject to tax in the hands of the recipient. An assessable temporary difference exists, but no deferred tax liability has been recognised as RePorting Co. Plc is able to control the timing of distributions from this subsidiary and is not expected to distribute these profits in the foreseeable future

Annualreporting provides financial reporting narratives using IFRS keywords and terminology for free to students and others interested in financial reporting. The information provided on this website is for general information and educational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for professional advice. Use at your own risk. Annualreporting is an independent website and it is not affiliated with, endorsed by, or in any other way associated with the IFRS Foundation. For official information concerning IFRS Standards, visit IFRS.org or the local representative in your jurisdiction.

Disclosure Corporate Income Tax

Disclosure financial assets and liabilities

Disclosure financial assets and liabilities

– provides a narrative providing guidance on users of financial statements’ needs to present financial disclosures in the notes to the financial statements grouped in more logical orders. But there is and never will be a one-size fits all.

Here it has been decided to separately disclose financial assets and liabilities and non-financial assets and liabilities, because of the distinct different nature of these classes of assets and liabilities and the resulting different types of disclosures, risks and tabulations.

Disclosure financial assets and liabilities guidance

Disclosing financial assets and liabilities (financial instruments) in one note

Users of financial reports have indicated that they would like to be able to quickly access all of the information about the entity’s financial assets and liabilities in one location in the financial report. The notes are therefore structured such that financial items and non-financial items are discussed separately. However, this is not a mandatory requirement in the accounting standards.

Accounting policies, estimates and judgements

For readers of Financial Statements it is helpful if information about accounting policies that are specific to the entityDisclosure financial assets and liabilitiesand about significant estimates and judgements is disclosed with the relevant line items, rather than in separate notes. However, this format is also not mandatory. For general commentary regarding the disclosures of accounting policies refer to note 25. Commentary about the disclosure of significant estimates and judgements is provided in note 11.

Scope of accounting standard for disclosure of financial instruments

­

IFRS 7 does not apply to the following items as they are not financial instruments as defined in paragraph 11 of IAS 32:

  1. prepayments made (right to receive future good or service, not cash or a financial asset)
  2. tax receivables and payables and similar items (statutory rights or obligations, not contractual), or
  3. contract liabilities (obligation to deliver good or service, not cash or financial asset).

While contract assets are also not financial assets, they are explicitly included in the scope of IFRS 7 for the purpose of the credit risk disclosures. Liabilities for sales returns and volume discounts (see note 7(f)) may be considered financial liabilities on the basis that they require payments to the customer. However, they should be excluded from financial liabilities if the arrangement is executory. the Reporting entity Plc determined this to be the case. [IFRS 7.5A]

Classification of preference shares

Preference shares must be analysed carefully to determine if they contain features that cause the instrument not to meet the definition of an equity instrument. If such shares meet the definition of equity, the entity may elect to carry them at FVOCI without recycling to profit or loss if not held for trading.

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Need for accounting measurement the big 1

Need for accounting measurement

Need for accounting measurement provides a summary of the measurement bases in use in Financial Reporting
and the concepts behind these measurement bases.
The measurement bases that will be considered here are

All these bases are forms of accrual accounting – that is, they are intended to measure income as it is earned and costs as they are incurred, as opposed to simply recording cash flows. The last four are all forms of current value measurement.

In forming a judgment on the appropriateness of measurement bases, in literature, the overriding tests has been identified to be their cost-effectiveness and fitness for purpose. However, in the absence of direct evidence on these matters, it is usual to argue in terms of various secondary characteristics that ought to be relevant in assessing the quality of information (see the key indicators in What is useful information?).

The most important of these characteristics are generally considered to be relevance and faithful representation / reliability (older term).

For each basis, an outline is given of how it works and the relevance and faithful representation of the resulting measurements. The question of measurement costs is also considered briefly. In reading the analyses that follow, the following comments should be borne in mind.

Bases of measurement in financial reporting are not carved in stone. Different people have different views on how each basis should work, and meanings evolve as practice changes. Some readers may therefore find that the way a particular basis is described does not match how they understand it.

This does not mean either that their understanding is wrong or that the description in the report is wrong; views on these things simply differ.

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Best guide IFRS 16 Lessor modifications

Best guide IFRS 16 Lessor modifications

summarises the accounting for lessor modifications that depends on – and may change – the lease classification.

Unlike IAS 17 Leases, the new standard provides detailed guidance on the lessor accounting for lease modifications, with separate guidance for modifications to finance leases and operating leases.

However, additional complexities arise for modifications of a finance lease receivable not accounted for as a separate lease for which, under paragraph 80(b) of IFRS 16, the lessor applies the requirements of IFRS 9 Financial Instruments. A number of issues arise due to differences in the basic concepts between IFRS 16 and IFRS 9.

The following diagram summarises the accounting for lease modifications by a lessor.

Best guide IFRS 16 Lessor modifications

Separate lease Not a separate lease – Finance to operating Not a separate lease – Finance to finance Lessor modifications to operating expenses

* A lessee reassessment of whether it is reasonably certain to exercise an option to extend, or not to exercise a termination option, included in the original lease contract is not a lease modification

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Best example Amortised cost and EIR calculations

Amortised cost at subsequent periods: a numerical example Amortised cost and EIR calculations

Example Amortised cost and EIR calculations

The following example illustrates the principles underlying the calculation of the amortised cost and the effective interest rate (EIR) for a fixed-rate financial asset:

  • On 1 January 2019, entity A purchases a non-amortising, non-callable debt instrument with five years remaining to maturity for its fair value of €995 and incurs transaction costs of €5. The instrument has a nominal value of €1,250 and carries a contractual fixed interest of 4.7% payable annually at the end of each year (4.7% * €1,250 = €59). Its redemption amount is equal to its nominal value plus accrued interest.
  • The instrument qualifies for a measurement at amortised cost. As explained in the preceding section, its initial carrying amount is the sum of the initial fair value plus transaction costs, i.e. €1,000.
  • The Effective Interest Rate (EIR) is the rate that exactly discounts the expected cash flows of this financial asset, presented in the table below, to its initial gross carrying amount (i.e. €995 + €5 = €1,000 in this example). In practice, entities will need to establish a timetable of all the expected cash flows of the financial instrument (see the table below) and then use for example an Excel formula to determine this rate. The table below summarises the timing of the expected cash flows of the instrument:

Figure 1

Figure 1

In the present case, using an Excel formula, the EIR amounts to 10%. The following table shows that the sum of the discounted cash flows amounts to zero:

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IFRS vs US GAAP Financial liabilities and equity

IFRS vs US GAAP Financial liabilities and equity – Under current standards, both US GAAP and IFRS require the issuer of financial instruments to determine whether either equity or financial liability classification (or both) is required. Although the IFRS and US GAAP definitions of a financial liability bear some similarities, differences exist that could result in varying classification of identical instruments.

As an overriding principle, IFRS requires a financial instrument to be classified as a financial liability if the issuer can be required to settle the obligation in cash or another financial asset. US GAAP, on the other hand, defines a financial liability in a more specific manner. Unlike IFRS, financial instruments may potentially be equity-classified under US GAAP if … Read more

Costs to issue or buy back issued shares

The accounting rule: Costs to issue or buy back issued shares by the issuing entity are accounted for as a deduction from equity, net of any related income tax benefit (the issue or buy back not being part of a business combination). 

An entity typically incurs various costs in issuing or acquiring its own equity instruments. Those costs might include registration and other regulatory fees, amounts paid to legal, accounting and other professional advisers, printing costs and stamp duties. The transaction costs of an equity transaction are accounted for as a deduction from equity (net of any related income tax benefit) to the extent they are incremental costs directly attributable to the equity transaction that otherwise would have been avoided. … Read more

Acquisition-related costs

Acquisition-related costs are costs the acquirer incurs to effect a business combination. Those costs include finder’s fees; advisory, legal, accounting, valuation and other professional or consulting fees; general administrative costs, including the costs of maintaining an internal acquisitions department; and costs of registering and issuing debt and equity securities. The acquirer shall account for acquisition-related costs as expenses in the periods in which the costs are incurred and the services are received, with one exception. The costs to issue debt or equity securities shall be recognised in accordance with IAS 32 and IFRS 9. [IFRS 3 53] Acquisition-related costs in business combinations

An acquirer incurs various acquisition-related costs in connection with a business combination, including: Acquisition-related costs in Read more

The way to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments

This is the way to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments, introducing the why? for this new IFRS standard. In July 2014 the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) published the 4th and final version of IFRS 9 Financial Instruments.

The way to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments

This was the conclusion of a major project started in 2002 as part of the Norwalk Agreement (WIKI) between the IASB and US Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) as a long term reform of financial instrument accounting. The way to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments

The project had been divided into three phases in order to allow a step by step approach. Once a phase was completed, the corresponding chapters were created in IFRS 9 … Read more