Acquisitions and mergers as per IFRS 3

Acquisitions and mergers

Acquisitions and mergers are becoming more and more common as entities aim to achieve their growth objectives. IFRS 3 ‘Business Combinations’ contains the requirements for these transactions, which are challenging in practice.

This narrative sets out how an entity should determine if the transaction is a business combination, and whether it is within the scope of IFRS 3.

Identifying a business combination

IFRS 3 refers to a ‘business combination’ rather than more commonly used phrases such as takeover, acquisition or Acquisitions and mergersmerger because the objective is to encompass all the transactions in which an acquirer obtains control over an acquiree no matter how the transaction is structured. A business combination is defined as a transaction or other event in which an acquirer (an investor entity) obtains control of one or more businesses.

An entity’s purchase of a controlling interest in another unrelated operating entity will usually be a business combination (see case below).

Case – Straightforward business combination

Entity T is a clothing manufacturer and has traded for a number of years. Entity T is deemed to be a business.

On 1 January 2020, Entity A pays CU 2,000 to acquire 100% of the ordinary voting shares of Entity T. No other type of shares has been issued by Entity T. On the same day, the three main executive directors of Entity A take on the same roles in Entity T.

Consider this…..

Entity A obtains control on 1 January 2020 by acquiring 100% of the voting rights. As Entity T is a business, this is a business combination in accordance with IFRS 3.

However, a business combination may be structured, and an entity may obtain control of that structure, in a variety of ways.

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Bill-and-hold arrangements in IFRS 15

Bill-and-hold arrangements

Bill-and-hold arrangements occur when an entity bills a customer for a product that it transfers at a point in time, but retains physical possession of the product until it is transferred to the customer at a future point in time. This might occur to accommodate a customer’s lack of available space for the product or delays in production schedules. [IFRS 15.B79]

To determine when to recognize revenue, an entity needs to determine when the customer obtains control of the product. Generally, this occurs at shipment or delivery to the customer, depending on the contract terms (for discussion of the indicators for transfer of control at a point in time, see Performance obligations satisfied at a point in time from Step 5 IFRS 15 in the link). The new standard provides criteria that have to be met for a customer to obtain control of a product in a bill-and-hold arrangement. These are illustrated below. [IFRS 15.B80–B81]

Bill-and-hold arrangements

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5 steps in IFRS 15 – best quick read

5 steps in IFRS 15

Under IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers, entities apply the 5 steps in IFRS 15 to determine when to recognize revenue, and at what amount. The model specifies that revenue is recognized when or as an entity transfers control of goods or services to a customer at the amount to which the entity expects to be entitled. Depending on whether certain criteria are met, revenue is recognized:

  • over time, in a manner that best reflects the entity’s performance; or
  • at a point in time, when control of the goods or services is transferred to the customer.

IFRS 15 provides application guidance on numerous related topics, including warranties and licenses. It also provides guidance on when to capitalize the costs of obtaining a contract and some costs of fulfilling a contract (specifically those that are not addressed in other relevant authoritative guidance – e.g. for inventory).

5 steps in IFRS 15 – What is IFRS 15?

Step 1: Identify the contract with a customer

A contract with a customer is in the scope of IFRS 15 when the contract is legally enforceable and certain criteria are met. If the criteria are not met, then the contract does not exist for purposes of applying the general model of IFRS 15, and any consideration received from the customer is generally recognized as a deposit (liability). Contracts entered into at or near the same time with the same customer (or a related party of the customer) are combined and treated as a single contract when certain criteria are met.

A contract with a customer is in the scope of IFRS 15 when it is legally enforceable and meets all of the following criteria. [IFRS 15.9]

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Transfer pricing – IAS 12 Best complete read

Transfer pricing
transactions between related parties

A transfer price is the price charged between related parties (e.g., a parent company and its controlled foreign corporation) in an inter-company transaction. Although inter-company transactions are eliminated when consolidating the financial results of controlled foreign corporations and their domestic parents, for preparation of individual tax returns each entity (or a tax consolidation unit of more than one entity in the group in one and the same tax jurisdiction) prepares stand-alone (or a tax consolidation unit) tax returns.

See also:

IAS 24 Related parties narrative IFRS 15 Revenue narrative IAS 12 Income tax narrative

Transfer prices directly affect the allocation of group-wide taxable income across national tax jurisdictions. Hence, a group’s transfer-pricing policies can directly affect its after-tax income to the extent that tax rates differ across national jurisdictions.

Arm’s length transaction principle

Most OECD countries rely upon the OECD TP Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations, that were originally released in 1995 and subsequently updated in 2017 (OECD TP Guidelines). The OECD TP Guidelines reaffirmed the OECD’s commitment to the arm’s length transaction principle.

In fact, the arm’s length transaction principle is considered “the closest approximation of the workings of the open market in cases where goods and services are transferred between associated enterprises.” The arm’s length principle implies that transfer prices between related parties should be set as though the entities were operating at arm’s length (i.e. were independent enterprises).

The application of the arm’s length transaction principle is generally based on a comparison of all the relevant conditions in a controlled transaction with the conditions in an uncontrolled transaction (i.e. a transaction between independent enterprises).

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Revenue definition

Revenue definition

Revenue is defined in IFRS 15 as: ‘Income arising in the course of an entity’s ordinary activities‘.

IFRS 15 establishes a single and comprehensive framework which sets out how much revenue is to be recognised, and when. The core principle is that a vendor should recognise revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the vendor expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.

The application of the core principle in IFRS 15 is carried out in five steps:

revenue definition

The five-step model is applied to individual contracts. However, as a practical expedient, IFRS 15 permits an entity to apply the model to a portfolio of contracts (or performance obligations) with similar characteristics if the entity reasonably expects that the effects would not differ materially from applying it to individual contracts.

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Fair value of Cryptographic assets

Fair value of Cryptographic assets

The fair value of a cryptographic asset (‘CA’) might be accounted for or disclosed in financial statements. Fair value might be needed in a variety of situations, including:

Inventory of cryptographic assets held by a broker-trader applying fair value less costs to sell accounting

Expense for third party services paid for in cryptographic assets

Cryptographic assets classified as intangible assets in cases where the revaluation model is used

Expense for employee services paid for in cryptographic assets

Revenue from the perspective of an ICO issuer

Cryptographic assets acquired in a business combination

Disclosure of the fair value for cryptographic assets held on behalf of others

Cryptographic assets held by an investment fund (either measured at fair value or for which fair value is disclosed)

IFRS 13, ‘Fair Value Measurement’, defines fair value as “the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date”, and it sets out a framework for determining fair values under IFRS.

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IFRS 15 Customers unexercised rights and breakage

IFRS 15 Customers unexercised rights and breakage

INTRO An entity may receive a non-refundable prepayment from a customer that gives the customer the right to receive goods or services in the future. Common examples include gift cards, vouchers and non-refundable tickets. Typically, some customers do not exercise their right – this is referred to as ‘breakage’.

An entity recognises a prepayment received from a customer as a contract liability and recognises revenue when the promised goods or services are transferred in the future. However, a portion of the contract liability recognised may relate to contractual rights that the entity does not expect to be exercised – i.e. a breakage amount. [IFRS 15.B44–B45]

The timing of revenue recognition related to breakage depends on whether the entity expects to be entitled to a breakage amount – i.e. if it is highly probable that recognising breakage will not result in a significant reversal of the cumulative revenue recognised. [IFRS 15.B46]

Customers unexercised rights

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Step 3 Determining Transaction Price

Step 3 Determining Transaction Price

– is all about correct revenue accounting in respect of the transaction price for the contract as part of IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers. Step 3 Determining Transaction Price

IFRS 15 The revenue recognition standard provides a single comprehensive standard that applies to nearly all industries and has changed revenue recognition quite significant. Step 3 Determining Transaction Price

IFRS 15 introduced a five step process for recognising revenue, as follows:Step 3 Determining Transaction Price

  1. Identify the contract with the customer
  2. Identify the performance obligations in the contract
  3. Determine the transaction price for the contract
  4. Allocate the transaction price to each specific performance obligation
  5. Recognise the revenue when the entity satisfies each performance obligation

INTRO Step 3: Determine Read more