Control of an economic resource

Control of an economic resource – This is all about: A present economic resource controlled by the entity as a result of past events.

Two very simple examples to start with:

Pat Co has purchased a patent for $20,000. The patent gives the company sole use of a particular manufacturing process which will save $3,000 a year for the next five years.

This is an asset, albeit an intangible one. There is a past event, control and future economic benefit (through cost savings).

Baldwin Co (the company) paid Don Brennan $10,000 to set up a car repair shop, on condition that priority treatment is given to cars from the company’s fleet.

This cannot be classified as an asset. Baldwin Co

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Offsetting - Identifying, recognising and measuring both an asset and a liability as separate units of account, but presenting them as a net asset or liability

Executory contracts

Executory contracts are contracts under which neither party has performed any of its obligations or both parties have partially performed their obligations to an equal extent. Hence an executory contract contains a combined right and obligation constituting a single asset or liability. The entity has an asset if the terms of the exchange are favorable; otherwise, it has a liability.

Examples of executory contracts (and some common reasons why they might be executory) include:

  • Real estate leases (tenant has to pay rent/landlord has to provide space) Executory contracts
  • Equipment leases (lessee has to pay rent/lessor has to provide equipment)
  • Development contracts (development work required/payment required on milestones), and
  • Licenses to intellectual property (licensee can use only within scope of license/licensor
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Current and non-current liabilities

Current and non-current liabilities explains the liabilities as in the Conceptual Framework 2018: this is the definition: A liability is a present obligationStability Ratios of the entity to transfer an economic resource as a result of past events.

A liability is defined as a company’s legal financial debts or obligations that arise during the course of business operations. Liabilities are settled over time through the transfer of economic benefits including money, goods or services. Recorded on the right side of the balance sheet, liabilities include loans, accounts payable, mortgages, deferred revenues and accrued expenses.

Liabilities are a vital aspect of a company because they are used to finance operations and pay for large expansions. They can also make transactions between … Read more

Present obligation as a result of past event

Present obligation as a result of past event – some basics in accrual accounting, some legal presumptions and a lot to understand….

Obligation: A duty or responsibility to act or perform in a certain way. Obligations may be legally enforceable as a consequence of a binding contract or statutory requirement. Obligations also arise, however, from normal business practice, custom and a desire to maintain good business relations or act in an equitable manner.

It is important to distinguish between a present obligation and a future commitment. A management decision to purchase assets in the future does not, in itself, give rise to a present obligation.

Settlement of a present obligation will involve the entity giving up resources embodying economic benefits … Read more

The elements of financial statements

The elements of financial statements are the classes of items contained in the financial statements. Financial statements portray the financial effects of transactions and other events by grouping them into broad classes according to their economic characteristics. These broad classes are termed the elements of financial statements.The elements of financial statements


There are two main groups of elements:

  • The first is associated with the measurement of an entity’s financial position: assets, liabilities and equity.
  • The second is related to the measurement of performance: income and expenses.

Within these main categories there are sub-classifications. For example, assets and liabilities may be classified by their nature or function in the business of the entity in order to display information in the manner most useful … Read more